High School Halt: Ways to Support Youth Working on Adult Life Plans During COVID-19

A Brief Overview

  • The pandemic and its impact on education may feel especially confusing for youth working toward graduation and life-after-high-school plans. Read on for information about how to support young people working on their diplomas and goals for college, vocational education, independent living, and more.
  • The state continues to navigate questions related to graduation pathways and credit requirements for students impacted by COVID-19. This article includes links to resources where information is regularly updated.
  • Students learning from home may need support to organize their days and incorporate the activities of daily living into their educational programs. This article includes some ideas for organizing at-home learning.
  • Another article from PAVE provides more information about vocational rehabilitation options for young people, during COVID and beyond: Ready for Work: Vocational Rehabilitation Provides Guidance and Tools.

Full Article

The COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on education may feel especially confusing for those who are working toward graduation and life-after-high-school plans. Parents may need additional communication with schools to ensure students are on track to complete work toward their diplomas, college admission requirements, or vocational/independent living goals.

On March 2, 2021, Governor Jay Inslee signed into law HB 1121, which allows for individual students to waive credit or testing requirements if their ability to complete them was disrupted by the pandemic. Temporary waivers were granted in 2020, and the new law gives the State Board of Education (SBE) permanent authority to grant school districts emergency waivers for cohorts of graduating seniors into the future. Schools are expected to help students meet requirements before falling back on the emergency waiver as a last resort.

A Washington State student with an Individualized Education Program (IEP) has added flexibility in meeting graduation requirements, which vary according to a set of options called Graduation Pathways. A student’s IEP includes a Transition Plan, and a target date for graduation is chosen by the IEP team. School and district staff, the student, and family participate in team discussions and decision-making.

A student receiving special education transition services may stay in school beyond the traditional senior year. A special education student’s right to a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) includes the right to free school-based services through the school year when the student turns 21, as needed to meet graduation requirements and IEP goals.

Recovery Services relate to COVID-19

If special education services were disrupted by the pandemic, transition programming may be extended beyond age 21 so the student can access Recovery Services. Individual IEP teams are responsible for determination of Recovery Services and graduation planning. The Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI) is seeking additional funding from the state to support transition services recovery.

OSPI provides a 60-page booklet: Reopening Washington Schools 2020: Special Education Guidance. The guidance defines recovery services, as “additional, supplemental services needed to address gaps in special education service delivery due to COVID-19 health and safety limitations, of which districts had no control.”

Creativity may be needed to ensure educational access in all areas of learning, including those related to the transition into adulthood. OSPI’s Reopening Schools guidance includes a section (See Page 49) on Graduation & Secondary Transition. Included is this statement:

“Secondary transition is more than providing pathways for the individual’s movement from high school to employment. It is a comprehensive approach to educational programs, focused on aligning student goals with educational experiences and services. When we move these activities to the continuum of reopening models, we have to stretch our thinking about how this can be done.”

Tips for high school at home

Since March 2020, the National Technical Assistance Center on Transition (NTACT) has provided webinars and other materials to promote home-based learning for transition-age youth with disabilities. This article includes some of NTACT’s ideas. The agency’s website provides webinar recordings and additional materials: Transition Resources in the 2020-2021 School Year.

In collaboration with the Center for Parent Information and Resources (CPIR/ParentCenterHub.org), NTACT provides an interactive tool for young people: Secondary Transition Considerations and Guiding Questions for Youth Exiting from High School. Throughout the document, a young person is guided to a variety of links and resources based on the way questions are chosen and answered. For example, “Things you can do now to help meet your postsecondary employment goal” provides a set of suggestions:

“Make a list of your career interests, the best work location for you, and types of jobs that best fit your skills. If you are not sure what jobs or careers interest you, explore your options at ‘Get My Future’ on the Career One Stop website.”

What about college admission requirements?

Students who are college-bound may have questions about admissions requirements and whether they can still be met. The National Association for College Admission Counseling has encouraged colleges to be flexible and has created a central resource for information related to Coronavirus and College Admission.

How can I help my student organize the day to include learning?

NTACT offers a range of downloadable Transition Focused Instructional Resources, including tools to help with scheduling and others for helping young people stay socially connected. In a March 2020 webinar, the agency encouraged creative ways to support regular work in each of the key areas of learning for a student with an IEP:

  • Life skills
  • Self-determination
  • Self-advocacy
  • Desire to work
  • Enriching experiences
  • Appropriate goals

Teachable moments might include real-life situations related to the pandemic and a new routine. Students still can have the opportunity to make choices and to live with the consequences of choices and actions. For example, a student-made meal might not be gourmet but can be enjoyed on its merits of life-skill-building and risk-taking.

How can the IEP support work at home?

NTACT recommends development of a consistent routine and documentation of daily work and any progress or regression. To help with planning, anyone supporting the student can take a close look at the current IEP.

The Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance, which are built from evaluation results, can provide inside about the student’s strengths, interests, and capacities. Annual goals will highlight the areas of specially designed instruction being provided through the IEP. Consider how instruction might be adapted for at-home instruction—or whether a more suitable goal might be considered. School staff and family members can collaborate to set up a shared approach.

For a student older than 16, a post-secondary transition plan is included in the IEP and includes projections about adult goals and the skills being worked on to get there. NTACT provides Choice Boards to support ongoing work in three key areas that are aspects of a transition plan:

  • Career exploration
  • Education and training
  • Independent living

The Choice Boards are pre-loaded with resource linkages and suggestions.

Think into the future

PAVE collaborated with the Washington Initiative for Supported Employment (WISE) to provide a video about life-after-high-school planning, with considerations related to COVID-19. For information about additional training opportunities visit the online calendar at GoWISE.org.

Here is a set of questions families might consider together to begin a planning process:

  1. Where am I now? (strengths, interests, capacities—the Present Levels of Performance in the IEP)
  2. Where do I want to go? (aspirations, dreams, expectations—Transition Plan Goals in the IEP)
  3. How do I get there? (transition services, courses, activities, supports, service linkages, community connections, help to overcome barriers—Annual Goals, Accommodations and other provisions included in the IEP)

What can we do at home today?

Consider how transition programming can be adapted to current circumstances so a young person continues to be connected to important relationships and inspired toward the future. Daily successes are to be celebrated, and high expectations elevate everyone. Below are some typical home-based subject areas that might support learning and skill-building, with a few linkages to resources that might help.

  • Leisure and Recreation
    • Cooking
    • Games
    • Podcasts and music
  • Home Maintenance
    • Organizing
    • Cooking
    • Cleaning
    • Yard Work
  • Personal Care
    • Personal Care—gottransition.org offers ideas to assist young adults in taking charge of their healthcare
  • Finances
    • Budgeting—Cents and Sensibility from the Pennsylvania Assistive Technology Foundation provides an approach for individuals with autism.
    • Practice with money by paying for things throughout the day
  • Communication
    • Letter and email writing
    • Webinars
    • Phone calls/interview a friend or relative about their career path and write about it?

Other places that provide vocational questionnaires and forecasting tools

  • AgExplorer.com helps students imagine themselves in fields related to farming and beyond
  • ExploreWork.com helps students with disabilities consider their strengths and interests and how to relate them to work options
  • RAISECenter.org offers a variety of tools related to vocational rehabilitation. (RAISE stands for Resources for Advocacy, Independence, Self-determination and Employment.)
  • CareerOneStop.org, sponsored by the US Department of Labor, provides career assessments through its website and a mobile app.
  • Options for further information related to higher education
  • ThinkCollege.net
  • OffToCollege.com
  • ParentCenterHub.org provides a library of college preparation resources related to specific disability categories

For additional ideas about supporting a student with in-home learning please refer to PAVE’s Links for Learning at Home During School Closure.

Please note that any resource list provided by PAVE is not exhaustive, and PAVE does not endorse or support these agencies. Links are provided for information only.

School to Adulthood: Transition Planning Toolkit for High School, Life, and Work

Looking to the future can feel exciting, hopeful, confusing, overwhelming—or all emotions at once. For families supporting a young person with a disability, it’s never too soon to begin planning to ensure a smooth process from the teen years toward whatever happens next. This toolkit supports families as they organize this multiyear project.

Learn the Words

A good place to begin is a Glossary of Key Terms for Life After High School Planning, which provides vocabulary building and an overview of topics relevant to this important phase of life. 

Pandemic Impacts

COVID-19 has interrupted some planning, and PAVE provides guidance and resources to support families through these unusual circumstances: High School Halt: Ways to Support Youth Working on Adult Life Plans During COVID-19. The article includes information about Washington’s 2021 law that supports waivers for some credit requirements if the pandemic caused a student to fall off track.

A student receiving special education services has a right to education through age 21, if needed, to meet requirements and achieve readiness. Some IEP teams may determine that because of COVID-19 a student needs to stay in school beyond 21 to access Recovery Services, a term developed by the Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI) to help students recover learning losses related to the pandemic. Decisions about Recovery Services are up to the work of IEP teams, which include parents and students.

Commencement Access

Regardless of when a diploma is earned, a student can participate in Commencement at the end of a traditional senior year, with peers, under a Washington provision called Kevin’s Law. Families may want to plan well in advance with school staff to consider how senior year events are accessible to youth with disabilities.

The Big Picture

The right to a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) includes the right to school-based services that prepare a young person with a disability for adult life. PAVE provides a general overview of transition planning in a written article and in a video. Included is basic guidance about the state’s requirement for a High School and Beyond Plan (HSBP) to start in middle school and how to align HSBP with the IEP Transition Plan, required by age 16.

Various state agencies collaborated to provide a downloadable guidebook: Guidelines for Aligning High School & Beyond Plans (HSBP) and IEP Transition Plans. Included are career-planning tools and linkages to current information about Graduation Pathways, which changed in 2019 when the Washington State Legislature passed House Bill (HB) 1599.

Student Self-Advocacy

As they move toward adulthood, many students benefit from opportunities to practice skills of self-advocacy and self-determination. One way to foster those skills is to encourage youth to get more involved in their own Individualized Education Programs (IEPs). To support that, PAVE provides this article: Attention Students: Lead your own IEP meetings and take charge of your future. Included is a handout that students might use to contribute to meeting agendas.

The RAISE Center (National Resources for Advocacy, Independence, Self-determination and Employment) provides a blog with transition related news, information, ideas and opinions. Topics in 2020-21 include how to “Be the Best You,” how issues of race and disability intersect with equity, and how “The Disability Agenda Could Bring Unity to A Fragmented Society,” by RAISE Center co-director Josie Badger, who is a person living with disability.

Student Rights after High School

An Individualized Education Program (IEP) ends when a student leaves secondary education. The protections of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 are ongoing throughout the lifespan.

These laws provide for appropriate accommodations in public programs and facilities. To support these disability protections, The IEP accommodations page or a Section 504 Plan can travel with a student into higher education, a vocational program, or work. Often a special services office at an institution for higher learning includes a staff member responsible for ensuring that disability rights are upheld. PAVE provides an article with general information about Section 504 rights that apply to all ages: Section 504: A Plan for Equity, Access and Accommodations.

Universal Design supports everyone

Asking for rights to be upheld is not asking for special favors. A person living with disability, Kyann Flint, wrote an article for PAVE to describe how Universal Design supports inclusion. Her article can provide inspiration for young people looking for examples of what is possible, now as ever: COVID-19 and Disability: Access to Work has Changed.

Agencies that can help

Washington State’s Division of Vocational Rehabilitation (DVR) provides services for high-school students engaged in transition planning as well as adults seeking employment. PAVE provides an article that describes Pre-Employment Transition Services (Pre-ETS) and more: Ready for Work: Vocational Rehabilitation Provides Guidance and Tools.

Services for individuals who are blind or living with low vision are provided by Washington’s Department of Services for the Blind (DSB). Youth services, Pre-Employment Transition Services (Pre-ETS), Vocational Rehabilitation, Business Enterprise Program, and mobility and other independent-living skills are served by DSB.

The Developmental Disabilities Administration (DDA) also has a variety of school-to-work and waiver programs that support youth. PAVE provides a video to support families through the DDA eligibility process. An article provides further detail: How to Prepare for a DDA Assessment.

Not all youth with disabilities are able to access employment-related services through DVR, DSB, or DDA. A limited additional option is Goodwill, which provides access to a virtual learning library. Students can take classes at their own pace for skills development. Employment skills, workplace readiness, interviewing skills and more are part of the training materials. A pilot project has made the library available to individuals in select counties, and more widespread access is forthcoming. To request further information, call 253-573-6507, or send an email to: library@goodwillwa.org.

Graduation’s over: Why is school calling?

Schools are responsible to track the outcomes of their special education services. Here’s an article to help families get ready to talk about how things are going: The School Might Call to Ask About a Young Adult’s Experience After High School: Here’s Help to Prepare

Benefits Planning

A consideration for many families of youth with disabilities is whether lifelong benefits will be needed. Applying for social security just past the young person’s 18th birthday not only creates a pathway toward a cash benefit but enables the young person to access Medicaid (public health insurance) and various programs that depend on Medicaid eligibility.

Benefits Information for Individuals and Families is available from the Washington Initiative for Supported Employment (gowise.org). Clark County WISE staff partner with PAVE and other regional agencies to produce a Family Training Series, with topics that include school services planning, life planning, social security, and more. The Start Now 2020-21 series was launched in partnership with PAVE, and a recording is accessible in English, Spanish, sign language, and with subtitles: Transition Training Series: Preparing for High School and Beyond (In English and Spanish).

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