A Brief Overview
- The pandemic and its impact on education may feel especially confusing for youth working toward graduation and life-after-high-school plans. Read on for information about how to support young people working on their diplomas and goals for college, vocational education, independent living, and more.
- The state continues to navigate questions related to graduation pathways and credit requirements for students impacted by COVID-19. This article includes links to resources where information is regularly updated.
- Students learning from home may need support to organize their days and incorporate the activities of daily living into their educational programs. This article includes some ideas for organizing at-home learning.
- Another article from PAVE provides more information about vocational rehabilitation options for young people, during COVID and beyond: Ready for Work: Vocational Rehabilitation Provides Guidance and Tools.
The COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on education may feel especially confusing for those who are working toward graduation and life-after-high-school plans. Parents and students may be wondering what will enable students to complete work toward their diplomas, meet college admission requirements or continue work toward vocational and/or independent living goals.
Since March 2020, the National Technical Assistance Center on Transition (NTACT) has provided webinars and other materials to promote home-based learning for transition-age youth with disabilities. This article includes some of NTACT’s ideas. The agency’s website provides webinar recordings and additional materials: Transition Resources in the 2020-2021 School Year.
In collaboration with the Center for Parent Information and Resources (CPIR/ParentCenterHub.org), NTACT provides an interactive tool for young people: Secondary Transition Considerations and Guiding Questions for Youth Exiting from High School. Throughout the document, a young person is guided to a variety of links and resources based on the way questions are chosen and answered. For example, “Things you can do now to help meet your postsecondary employment goal” provides a set of suggestions:
“Make a list of your career interests, the best work location for you, and types of jobs that best fit your skills. If you aren’t sure what jobs or careers interest you, explore your options at ‘Get My Future’ on the Career One Stop website.”
Graduation requirements shift
The Washington State Board of Education (SBE) provides information about graduation impacts of COVID-19. SBE in summer 2020 began a rulemaking process to provide districts more flexibility to:
- Award credit based on demonstration of mastery or competency
- Offer courses that meet more than one subject area graduation requirement
- Waive the Washington state history requirement for some students impacted by school closures or other disruptions. Waivers are individually determined.
The State Legislature passed a law in response to coronavirus (EHB 2965) that supported emergency waivers for the graduating Class of 2020. The goal was to ensure that students on track to graduate would not be held back because of the pandemic.
Graduation standards and requirements also are impacted by a 2019 law that provides multiple pathways toward a diploma. The Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI) offers a website page describing the Graduation Pathways, with toolkits for families and students.
For a student eligible for an Individualized Education Program (IEP), the IEP team determines what criteria are met for the student to earn a diploma and the timeline for graduation. Families are encouraged to reach out to IEP team members, district staff, and school counselors to collaborate on how the IEP and graduation targets are adjusted in light of the pandemic.
Recovery services and/or compensatory services may be available
The Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI) provides a 60-page booklet: Reopening Washington Schools 2020: Special Education Guidance. The guidance defines recovery services, as “additional, supplemental services needed to address gaps in special education service delivery due to COVID-19 health and safety limitations, of which districts had no control.”
Compensatory services are provided as a remedy when a school is found through a dispute resolution process to have denied a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE). By federal law (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act/IDEA), a student with an IEP is entitled to FAPE, which provides an individualized program to enable progress appropriate in light of a student’s unique circumstances. Those circumstances include strengths and assets, disability condition, family considerations, the pandemic, and more.
Students in transition programs who aged out during Spring 2020 may be eligible for recovery and/or compensatory services. Other students who missed key learning also could be eligible. Families can reach out to their IEP teams and/or district special education program staff to discuss options. Data about school/family communications, accessibility of educational materials, and IEP/transition services provided/not provided will contribute to conversations about recovery/compensatory services.
Creativity may be needed to ensure educational access in all areas of learning, including those related to the transition into adulthood. OSPI’s guidance includes a section on Graduation & Secondary Transition, with step-by-step instructions for educators supporting youth with transition programming:
“Secondary transition is more than providing pathways for the individual’s movement from high school to employment,” the guidance states. “It is a comprehensive approach to educational programs, focused on aligning student goals with educational experiences and services. When we move these activities to the continuum of reopening models, we have to stretch our thinking about how this can be done.”
What about college admission requirements?
Students who are college-bound may have questions about admissions requirements and whether they can still be met. The National Association for College Admission Counseling has encouraged colleges to be flexible and has created a central resource for information related to Coronavirus and College Admission.
How can I help my student organize the day to include learning?
NTACT offers a range of downloadable Transition Focused Instructional Resources, including tools to help with scheduling and others for helping young people stay socially connected. In a March 24 webinar, the agency encouraged creative ways to support regular work in each of the key areas of learning for a student with an IEP:
- Life skills
- Desire to work
- Enriching experiences
- Appropriate goals
Teachable moments might include real-life situations related to the pandemic and a new routine. Students still can have the opportunity to make choices and to live with the consequences of choices and actions. For example, a student-made meal might not be gourmet but can be enjoyed on its merits of life-skill-building and risk-taking.
How can the IEP support work at home?
NTACT recommends development of a consistent routine and documentation of daily work and any progress or regression. To help with planning, anyone supporting the student can take a close look at the current IEP.
The Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance, which are built from evaluation results, can provide inside about the student’s strengths, interests, and capacities. Annual goals will highlight the areas of specially designed instruction being provided through the IEP. Consider how instruction might be adapted for at-home instruction—or whether a more suitable goal might be considered. School staff and family members can collaborate to set up a shared approach.
For a student older than 16, a post-secondary transition plan is included in the IEP and includes projections about adult goals and the skills being worked on to get there. NTACT provides Choice Boards to support ongoing work in three key areas that are aspects of a transition plan:
- Career exploration
- Education and training
- Independent living
The Choice Boards are pre-loaded with resource linkages and suggestions.
Think into the future
PAVE provides a webinar and a comprehensive article about life-after-high-school planning with further guidance about the transition process in general. More time at home together might give families a good opportunity to sit back and consider key questions to help the student make future plans:
- Where am I now?(strengths, interests, capacities—the Present Levels of Performance in the IEP)
- Where do I want to go?(aspirations, dreams, expectations—Transition Plan Goals in the IEP)
- How do I get there?(transition services, courses, activities, supports, service linkages, community connections, help to overcome barriers—Annual Goals, Accommodations and other provisions included in the IEP)
What can we do at home today?
Consider how transition programming can be adapted to current circumstances so a young person continues to be connected to important relationships and inspired toward the future. Daily successes are to be celebrated, and high expectations elevate everyone. Below are some typical home-based subject areas that might support learning and skill-building, with a few linkages to resources that might help.
- Leisure and Recreation
- Home Maintenance
- Yard Work
- Personal Care
- Budgeting—Cents and Sensibility from the Pennsylvania Assistive Technology Foundation provides an approach for individuals with autism.
- Practice with money by paying for things throughout the day
- Letter and email writing
- Phone calls/interview a friend or relative about their career path and write about it?
Other places that provide vocational questionnaires and forecasting tools
- AgExplorer.com helps students imagine themselves in fields related to farming and beyond
- ExploreWork.com helps students with disabilities consider their strengths and interests and how to relate them to work options
- RAISECenter.org offers a variety of tools related to vocational rehabilitation. (RAISE stands for Resources for Advocacy, Independence, Self-determination and Employment.)
- CareerOneStop.org, sponsored by the US Department of Labor, provides career assessments through its website and a mobile app.
- Options for further information related to higher education
- ParentCenterHub.org provides a library of college preparation resources related to specific disability categories
For additional ideas about supporting a student with in-home learning please refer to PAVE’s Links for Learning at Home During School Closure.
Please note that any resource list provided by PAVE is not exhaustive, and PAVE does not endorse or support these agencies. Links are provided for information only.
A Brief Overview
- Vocational rehabilitation (VR) is a federal right that has not been waived during school and office closures related to COVID-19. Pre-Employment Transition Services (Pre-ETS) are one way to get support. Another is through 1:1 counseling and an Individualized Plan for Employment (IPE).
- The best way to seek DVR services for a student still working toward graduation is to contact the DVR counselor assigned to the student’s school. DSHS maintains an interactive map, Find a School Transition Counselor.
- Families and students also can reach out to regional DVR staff for information about how to access services, including summer camps and programs.
- Individuals with vision impairment and blindness are served through a separate vocational rehabilitation agency in Washington State, the Department of Services for the Blind (DSB).
- Graduating seniors can seek DVR and DSB services now!
Teenagers and young adults with disabilities have additional considerations when deciding what life looks like after high school. The transition planning process, which begins in middle school and continues through high-school graduation and beyond, is extra challenging with social distancing measures and uncertainty about how jobs and higher education are impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.
In Washington State, young people can get help from the Division of Vocational Rehabilitation (DVR), which is housed within the Department of Social and Health Services (DSHS). DVR staff are working remotely and creatively to continue providing services to adults and students during office and school closures, says Chelsie Gillum, a Regional Transition Consultant (RTC) in Pierce County.
DVR services are a civil right
The right to vocational rehabilitation (VR) services is an aspect of Title 1 of the amended Rehabilitation Act of 1973. In 2014, the Rehabilitation Act, which guarantees equitable access to public spaces and programs, was further amended to include the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA).
Pre-Employment Transition Services (Pre-ETS) were already an aspect of the Rehabilitation Act, but WIOA further defines Pre-ETS and requires that VR agencies set aside 15 percent of their funding to provide or arrange for the provision of Pre-ETS.
Note that Section 504 is also a feature of the Rehabilitation Act. Section 504 guarantees the right to accommodations for equitable access in public facilities and programs and is the basis for a student’s “504 Plan” that provides accommodations, modifications, and anti-discrimination measures for educational access. Section 504 protections aren’t limited to school: Like the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), Section 504 protect a person in higher education, work, and elsewhere throughout the lifespan.
None of these federal rights have been waived during COVID-19.
Pre-ETS may include summer options
Gillum is among DVR staff who support groups of students with Pre-ETS. Generally, programs include job exploration, work-based learning, counseling about further educational options, workplace readiness and self-advocacy training. Some programs are being offered online or through other distance delivery methods in Summer 2020.
For example, a Youth Leadership Forum is being organized as a weeklong virtual camp in July 2020. A Facebook page for YLF is one way to learn more. Junior Achievement: Finance Park is another summer option for students statewide who want to learn more about personal finance and business. Families and students can reach out to regional DVR staff for specific information about these and other options for summer and beyond.
“Just because you cannot attend a camp in-person does not mean you have to miss out on valuable work readiness training and work-based learning experiences,” Gillum says.
Gillum says virtual job fairs, recorded informational interviews and virtual tours of job sites are options during social distancing. “Agencies and businesses are still hiring,” she says. “DVR applications are being processed, and intake meetings are being conducted.”
Gillum encourages 2020 graduating seniors to seek services right away: “I want to make sure our graduating students are as connected as possible, especially given how uncertain the world is right now,” she says.
Pre-ETS can start at ages 14-16 or later
Students with Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) can receive Pre-ETS as young as age 14, if the IEP includes a Transition Plan. An IEP team can write a Transition Plan into the IEP whenever the student, family and school staff are ready to begin that process. DVR staff can support that work, Gillum says, and families can initiate those contacts.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), the federal law that governs special education process and protects the rights of eligible student, requires that an IEP include a Transition Plan by the school year in which the student turns 16. PAVE provides an article and a video about the high-school transition process in general. In addition, PAVE has an article about graduation and life-planning impacts of the shutdown: High School Halt.
Students 16 and older can receive Pre-ETS from DVR if they have an IEP, a Section 504 Plan and/or a documented disability and a family caregiver and school staff sign a DVR consent form. If the student is 18 or older (educational age of majority in Washington), the student and school staff sign the DVR form.
Families and students can contact DVR directly
Gillum says the best way to access the 2-page consent form and begin services is to contact the DVR counselor assigned to the student’s school. DSHS maintains an interactive map on a page called, Find a School Transition Counselor. By entering the county, school district, and name of the school, families can get a name and phone number for the DVR staff member assigned to their specific school.
Families also can look on DVR’s Pre-Employment Transition Services website page and scroll down to the chart that lists Regional Transition Consultants by area/county and includes phone numbers.
Families, schools, and students will need to work collaboratively to provide the required signatures for consent forms during the pandemic. Scanned versions may suffice in the short term, although mailed copies may eventually be required. A DVR counselor can provide guidance about the best methods for submitting the required forms to begin services.
Services for the blind are managed separately
Individuals with vision impairment and blindness are served through a separate vocational rehabilitation (VR) agency in Washington State. The Department of Services for the Blind (DSB) provides Pre-ETS and VR for clients statewide and maintains an Orientation and Training Center (OTC), to help individuals learn to navigate the world with limited or no vision, in Seattle.
DSB continues to serve clients during school and facility closures, says Michael MacKillop, Acting Executive Director. In early spring, 2020, MacKillop noted that DSB had been able to serve all clients who qualified for services, clearing a waitlist that is part of the state’s Order of Selection to serve clients within its budget.
Order of Selection impacts access to 1:1 DVR support
DVR also operates with Order of Selection when clients apply for individualized vocational rehabilitation (VR) counseling. The Individualized Plan for Employment (IPE) is a DVR program that is separate from Pre-Employment Transition Services (Pre-ETS). The IPE is supported 1:1, whereas pre-employment services are generally provided to groups of students.
Through Order of Selection, individuals with the highest needs for support are prioritized for 1:1 support from a DVR counselor. When developing an IPE, the client and counselor establish a goal for employment; the counselor provides coaching, logistical and sometimes financial support to help make that happen. The case remains open until the employment goal is met if the client remains meaningfully engaged in the process. IPE services might include educational support if further education is needed to achieve a job goal.
Can a student get Pre-ETS and 1:1 help?
A student might receive services through both programs—Pre-ETS and the Individualized Plan for Employment (IPE). However, families should be aware that there are some specific rules related to Order of Selection.
- If a student is already participating in Pre-ETS, the student can apply for an IPE and Order of Selection will not impact the student’s ongoing engagement in Pre-ETS.
- If the student applies for an IPE first and is put on a waiting list, then the student also will have to wait to begin Pre-ETS.
- A student will have more access to DVR services by engaging with the Pre-ETS first and then considering whether to also apply for individualized support.
Signing a consent form with DVR is the first step
The family and school need to work together to complete DVR’s consent form before services can begin. Some programs, including summer camps, require a student to be officially enrolled in Pre-ETS. Completing the consent form is a first step.
Services from DVR expand work underway at school
Note that all students in Washington work with counselors and other school staff on a High School and Beyond Plan, which includes interest surveys and career cruising, encourages volunteer work, and provides an organizational method to ensure that a student’s work in school strengthens a pathway toward adult goals. The state requires this planning to begin in Middle School, by 7th– 8th grade, for all students.
Summary of Tools for Transition
To summarize, a student with a disability has a set of possible tools to support the high-school transition and plans for higher education, work, and independent living:
- High School and Beyond Plan (HSBP)—described on the website of the Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI). The HSBP is a tool for all Washington students and required to begin by 8th
- IEP Transition Plan—described by OSPI in a booklet, Guidelines for Aligning High School & Beyond Plans (HSBP) and IEP Transition Plans. A Transition Plan is an IEP requirement by age 16.
- Pre-Employment Transition Services (Pre-ETS) from DVR, for students with a documented disability who may have an IEP, a Section 504 Plan or no plan. A student does not need to be eligible for DVR case management to receive Pre-ETS.
- An Individualized Plan for Employment (IPE), if eligible, with 1:1 DVR support
- Person Centered Planning is another tool: PAVE provides an article about PCP, with reminders that sessions can happen in person or virtually.
Key elements of Pre-Employment Transition Services (Pre-ETS)
Pre-ETS include five required services. Each service in this list is linked to a resource for further investigation. DVR counselors can provide additional resources to suit an individual’s unique circumstances:
- Job exploration counseling: career speakers, interest and ability inventories, investigation of labor market statistics and trends, and more
- Work-based learning experiences: in-school or after school opportunities, including internships, provided in an integrated environment to the maximum extent possible. According to the Brookings Institution, work-based learning is predictive of future job quality.
- Counseling on opportunities for further education: How to complete the Free Application for Federal Student Aid(FAFSA®) and how to locate disability resource centers at colleges and universities are part of college readiness.
- Workplace readiness training to develop social skills and independent living
- Instruction in self-advocacy, which may include peer mentoring, training in disability disclosure, and more
Work-based learning and work readiness programs are generally provided by agencies that contract with DVR, says Gillum from DVR in Tacoma. “Transition consultants oversee those contracts and help connect students and agencies to develop a service plan.”
Why VR is worth the work and where to go for more information
Research shows that access to an array of collaborative services during high school improves post-secondary outcomes, especially when school staff and service providers get to know one another and there are “warm hand-offs” between individuals who develop trusted relationships with the young person, according to data shared by the National Technical Assistance Center on Transition (NTACT). Another place for data and detail about WIOA is the Workforce Innovation Technical Assistance Center (WINTAC).
Engagement with vocational rehabilitation services is supported by initiatives endorsed by the U.S. Department of Labor and its Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP). These federal agencies promote the concept of Employment First, a framework for systems change centered on the premise that all citizens, including individuals with significant disabilities, are capable of full participation in integrated employment and community life.
The PACER Center, a Minnesota-based agency founded in 1977 to promote a “parents helping parents” philosophy, supports the National Parent Center on Transition and Employment, which offers a collection of materials with more information about vocational rehabilitation and how to benefit from pre-employment and employment services. Included in the PACER Center’s materials is a booklet for parents to help young people prepare for college and careers.
Washington’s DVR program provides a video about the school-to-work transition with young people talking about their experiences with the agency and how it helped.
Chelsie Gillum from the Pierce County region of DVR encourages young people and families to contact DVR despite the pandemic. “Even if vocational rehabilitation services are not what you need immediately,” she says, “our team can help connect you with other resources to help you during the pandemic. We appreciate your patience and flexibility as we all adjust to meet people’s needs in this ever-changing landscape. We cannot wait to hear from you!”
A Brief Overview
- Person-Centered Planning (PCP) is a method for helping a person map out a future with intention and support.
- PAVE staff member Michele Lehosky, PCP facilitator, provided a training at PAVE’s Tools 4 Success conference in March 2020. Here’s a YouTube video from that virtual conference: Build Your Dream Map.
- Read on for more information about what Person-Centered Planning is like.
Everyone dreams about what they might do or become. Individuals with disabilities might need additional support to design the plans, set the goals and recruit help. The Person-Centered Planning (PCP) process is a tool that works like a Global Positioning System (GPS) to help a person figure out where they are starting and how to navigate to a planned destination.
A PCP session is a gathering that can happen in a specific physical location, such as a school or a community center, or in a virtual space online. The people who get together might include family members, friends, teachers, vocational specialists, coaches—anyone who might help brainstorm ways to plan an enriched, full life for a person of honor.
The first step is to celebrate the gifts, talents, and dreams of the person. Then the group develops action steps to help that person move closer to their dreams and goals.
Throughout the gathering, the attendees listen, ask questions, and draw pictures or write down words that contribute to the process. Respect for the person’s goals and wishes is a priority, and participants withhold judgment to honor the individual completely.
Person-Centered Planning explores all areas of a person’s life. All people experience various times in their lives that are transitions. High-school graduation is a major example. Job changes, moving to a new home, entering or leaving a relationship: Those transitions happen for individuals with and without disabilities.
Individuals with disabilities have some additional transitions. For example, when a person leaves the special education system of public education at graduation or after age 21, there is a change in disability protections. A student receiving special education is protected by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). In adult life, the right to accommodations and non-discrimination is protected solely by the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Section 504) and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).
There are specific transitions that occur for individuals who qualify for support from the Developmental Disabilities Administration (DDA), which in Washington is part of the Department of Social and Health Services (DSHS). Employment and workforce training programs often are part of the transition from high school into what happens next.
During major life transitions, many service agencies focus on a person’s inabilities or deficits. Person-Centered Planning, on the other hand, focuses on what’s positive and possible, based on the dreams and goals of the individual.
A PCP session includes a set of maps where information is collected in words and pictures. Here are some examples:
People in my Life
This map names important people and their roles in concentric circles. These are people that the individual trusts for help and support and may include paid and unpaid supporters. Those who are closest to the person are in the circles closest to the center of the map.
Who am I? My Story, My History
This map is built during the session to describe the person’s story from birth up until the gathering. This map reflects what is most important to the individual. The facilitator might ask:
- What parts of your life are important for people to know?
- What are some stories of your life that would be helpful for a coworker or a friend to know?
- Are you a sibling? A spouse? A parent?
- How old are you?
- What activities do you participate in?
- Have you had any jobs?
- Where do you live? Go to school?
- Do you have a medical concern that someone spending time with you might need to know about?
Likes and Dislikes
The “Likes” list includes favorites, things that make the person happy. Favorite colors, foods, activities, places, people are listed.
The “Dislikes” list includes the opposite of all those things and might also list triggers (bright lights, loud noises, angry voices, bullies) or other sensitivities.
What Works/ Doesn’t work
The first part of this map asks: When learning a new activity or skill, what are steps and learning tools or activities that work for you? Answers might look like these examples: frequent breaks, accommodations, a written schedule, a list of duties, instructions in larger print, a preferred time of day to start something….
The second part asks: When learning a new activity or skill what activities do not work for you? Answers might resemble these examples: waiting in line, too many instructions, too many people barking out orders, standing or sitting for too long, verbal instructions, unclear expectations….
Gifts, Talents and Strengths
This map asks several questions:
- What are you good at?
- What can you do that is easy for you?
- What are your best qualities?
- What do people like about you?
Examples for answers: best smile, cleaning, giving, caring, natural dancer, very social, great with computers, good with numbers, great at sports, good listener, good with animals, etc.
The My Dreams map asks: Where you would like to see yourself in a few years? Follow-up questions:
- What will you be doing?
- What would your dream job be?
- Where are you living?
- Do you live on your own or with family or a roommate?
- How are you keeping in touch with your friends?
- What is an action you can take to move toward your dream or goals?
The Nightmare Map asks: What do you want to avoid? Follow-up questions might include this one: Where do you not want to be in a few years? This is not to make the person feel bad but to make an out-loud statement about what the person doesn’t want to happen. This can include actions or thoughts that someone wants to avoid.
The Needs map asks: What do you need help with to avoid the nightmare? A follow up question might include: What areas do you need support with? Answers might look like these examples: budgeting money, learning to drive, training to ride the bus, cooking lessons, looking for a job. The goal is to recruit support to help the person stay away from the nightmare and work toward the dream.
A map that show Action Steps includes the specific help that will assist the individual in moving toward the dream. This chart typically details what needs to be done, who will do it, and by when.
Goal: To Write a Resume
What: Call Mark to ask for help.
By When: Next Monday, April 6, 2020
This process involves many support people in the person’s life and identifies, in a self-directed way, areas where help is needed to meet personal goals. The gathering involves the important people in someone’s life because they can help through the process and step up to offer support for the action steps.
How to get a Person-Centered Plan
Here are places that might help you find a PCP facilitator in your area:
- Developmental Disabilities Administration (DDA)
- Division of Vocational Rehabilitation (DVR)
- School District
If you live in Pierce County, Wash., PAVE offers PCP facilitation. Please fill out a Helpline Request Form at wapave.org and ask for PCP support. One of our coordinators will contact you.
Here are a few additional places to seek information about Person-Centered Planning:
A Brief Overview
- By the time you are 16 years old, the school is required to invite you to your IEP meetings. You can attend any time, and leading your own meeting is a great way to learn important skills.
- If you need more help at school or aren’t learning what you need to learn, then your IEP might need some fixing. Your voice matters on the IEP team.
- A website, I’m Determined.org, provides videos of students describing their goals. You can also print a goal-tracking worksheet from that website.
- Read on to learn more about the parts of an IEP and how to get more involved in your own education.
If you are a student with an Individualized Education Program (IEP), read this article to find out how you can be a leader on your IEP team. Your future is counting on you!
By the time you are 16 years old, the school is required to invite you to your IEP meetings. From that year on, your school program is matched to your long-term goals. It’s important to plan your time carefully so that every school day gets you closer to where you want to be when you are an adult.
Learn to be a self-advocate
An advocate (pronounced ad-vo-cut) is someone who asks for something in a public way. Public schools get money from the government, so they are considered public entities. When you ask the school to provide you with something that you need to succeed, then you are being a self-advocate.
The word advocate can also be an action word (a verb), but then it’s pronounced ad-vo-cate (rhymes with date). You advocate for yourself when you ask for what you need to succeed.
Here’s another way to use this hyphenated word: You can say that you “practice self-advocacy.” Leading your own IEP meeting is a great way to practice self-advocacy and develop important adult skills.
Your Transition Plan focuses on where you want to go
The part of the IEP that focuses on your adult goals is called a Transition Plan. The Transition Plan is added to the IEP by the school year when you turn 16. The plan includes details about:
- when you plan to graduate (you can stay in school through age 21 if your IEP goals require more time)
- what jobs you might choose
- whether college is part of your plans
- what lifestyle you imagine for yourself (will you drive, cook, shop, live alone?)
- how school is getting you ready for all of that
The Transition Plan is all about you and your future. You can start taking charge of your future by going to your IEP meetings. You may want to lead all or part of the meeting, and you have that right.
The law says it’s all about you
Your rights as a student with an IEP are part of a federal law called the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The IDEA says that schools must include family members and students on the IEP team. If you don’t play on the team, you can’t win the game, right? This is more important than a game—it’s Your Life!
The IDEA is a unique law because it says you get what you need in order to access school and learning. Getting an education that is specially designed just for you is called an entitlement. What you are entitled to is called FAPE, which means Free Appropriate Public Education.
You can become a leader on your IEP team by learning more about FAPE and how to talk about what it means to you. Public education is free for all school-age students in the United States, but consider this question: What makes your education appropriate?
Here are some questions to help you think and talk about FAPE:
- What is it like to have a disability?
- What about your disability makes school hard?
- What do you need at school that helps you learn?
- Are you getting better and better at the skills you need to be good at?
- Are your teachers helping you see what you do well?
If you are learning important skills at school, and your learning is helping you build on your strengths, then you are probably getting FAPE. If you need more help or aren’t learning the skills that you need to move forward, then your IEP might need some fixing. Keep in mind that the school is responsible to provide you with FAPE. You have the right to ask for FAPE.
Learn what your IEP can do for you
Here’s a starter kit to help you understand what your IEP says and how you can ask for changes. When you go to your IEP meeting, you have the right to ask the teachers and school administrators to help you read and understand your IEP.
These are some important parts of an IEP:
- Category of Disability: This is on the “cover page” of the IEP document. It lists the type of disability that best describes why you need individualized help at school. You should know this category so you can understand how and why teachers are supposed to help you.
- The Present Levels of Performance: This is the long section at the beginning of the IEP that describes how you are doing and what the school is helping you work on. The beginning of this section lists what you are good at. Make sure that section is complete so you can be sure the teachers help you build on your strengths.
- Goals: When you qualified for an IEP, the school did an evaluation. You showed that you needed to learn certain things with instructions designed just for you. To help you learn, the teachers provide Specially Designed Instruction. They keep track of your progress toward specific goals in each area of learning. You can learn what your goals are and help track your progress. A website, I’m Determined.org, provides videos of students describing their goals. You can also print a goal-tracking worksheet from that website.
- Accommodations: You can ask for what you need to help you learn in all the different classrooms and places where you spend the school day. Do you learn better if you sit in a specific part of the classroom, for example, or if you have a certain type of chair? Do you need to be able to take breaks? Do you do better on tests if you take them in a small, quiet space instead of the regular classroom? Do you need shorter assignments, so you don’t get overwhelmed? Helping your teachers know how to help you is part of your job as an IEP team member.
Get Ready for Your IEP Meeting
You can get ready for your IEP meeting by looking over the IEP document. You may want to ask a family member or a teacher to help you read through the document. If you don’t understand what’s in your IEP, plan to ask questions at the meeting.
PAVE provides a worksheet to help you prepare for your meeting. It’s called a Student Input Form. You can use this worksheet to make a handout for the meeting or just to start thinking about things you might want to say. If you don’t want to make a handout, you might draw pictures or make a video to share your ideas.
These sentence starters might help you begin:
- I enjoy…
- I learn best when…
- I’m good at…
- It’s hard for me when…
- I want more help in these areas…
- I like school the most when …
- Teachers are helpful when they…
- I want to learn more about …
- It would be great if…
You may want to think about your disability and how it affects your schoolwork. You could work on a sentence or draw a picture to help the teachers understand something that is hard for you. These might be the parts of a sentence that you can personalize:
- My disability in the area of …
- makes school difficult because…
Your handout can include a list of what you want to talk about at the meeting. Here are a few ideas, but your options are unlimited:
- A favorite class, teacher or subject in school?
- A time during the school day that is hard for you?
- Your IEP goals?
- Something that helps you feel comfortable and do well?
- Something you want to change in your school schedule or program?
- Graduation requirements and when you plan to graduate?
- Your High School and Beyond Plan? (see information below)
- Anything else that’s important to you?
High School and Beyond Plan
Maybe you started talking about what you might do after graduation when you were in middle school. Washington State public schools are required to help all students begin a High School and Beyond Plan by 8th grade. Ask a teacher, a school counselor and/or your parents if you haven’t started one of those: It’s required so you can graduate from high school.
It’s never too soon to think about what you want to do in the future. When you start building an IEP Transition Plan, it’s critical to think and talk through your ideas and how you see yourself moving forward. Here are some starter questions:
- Where am I now? (strengths, interests, abilities)
- Where do I want to go? (aspirations, dreams, expectations)
- How do I get there? (goals, courses, activities, helpers, accommodations)
Here are some additional questions to help you plan:
Jobs, Trades, & Work
- What jobs would be a good fit?
- What training and/or supports will you need?
- Does your IEP include community work experience?
Education after high school
- Do your personal goals include college or technical school?
- What accommodations will you need?
- Have you contacted Disability Support Services on campus?
- Will you live with family, a friend or on your own?
- How will you cook, clean, shop, & get around town?
- Does your IEP have goals for Independent living?
- What will you do for fun?
- Will you join a club or support group?
- How will you make friends and keep in touch?
It’s never too soon to plan ahead!
Setting goals and making some plans now will help your school and family help you make sure you’ve got the right class credits, skills training and support to make that shift out of high school easier.
Being a leader at your IEP meeting is a great way to build skills for self-advocacy and self-determination, which is another great two-part word to learn. Self-determination means you make choices to take control of your life. At your IEP meeting, you can practice describing what helps you or what makes your life hard. You get to talk about what you do well and any projects or ideas that you get excited about. In short, you get to design your education so that it supports your plans to design your own adult life.
Here are links to more ideas and tools to help you get involved in your own future planning:
Students of all abilities have the right to a solid education to get ready for adult life. Students with Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) have a right to participate in IEP meetings to make sure the program is a good set-up for higher education, vocational training, work—whatever comes next after graduation.
Schools are required to invite students 16 and older to IEP meetings when life-after-high-school planning is discussed.
How students participate in their IEP meetings can make a big difference in the transition programming. To learn more about how to participate at IEP meetings, read PAVE’s article, Attention Students: Lead your own IEP meetings and take charge of your future.
The rest of this article can help you design a handout for a team meeting. The Student Input Form for a Meeting with the School is here for easy download.. If this format doesn’t work for you, you might choose just a few of these ideas to design a handout in your own style. You could also make a vision board or record a video to share at the IEP meeting instead of a handout.
Whatever style you choose for communicating with your IEP team, remember that standing up for yourself and asking for what you need is an important life skill.
Here are a few tips:
Keep your handout short to highlight your most important points.
You can send your handout to the school before the meeting. Or, take a moment when you arrive to hand out your one-pager and ask everyone to read it.
The top of your handout should include your contact information and other basics about the meeting. Try to include all of this:
- Student Name: Jane Imincharge
- Phone/email: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Meeting Date/Time: XX/XX/XXXX, 3-5 pm
- Location: Anywhere School
- Topic: IEP Review, Evaluation Review, Section 504 Plan, Re-entry after Discipline, Etc.
Next you want to describe your goals, what you are good at and what help you need. These sentences can help you get started:
- I enjoy…
- I learn best when…
- I’m good at…
- It’s hard for me when…
- I want more help…
- I like school the most when …
- Teachers are helpful when they…
- I want to learn more about …
- It would be great if…
Include a Photograph!
A photograph of you reminds everyone that you are the most important person at the meeting. Don’t be shy about bragging about what you are good at. It’s the school’s job to help you build on your strengths.
The final section of your handout describes your concerns. You may need to start on scratch paper with a longer list and then edit to settle on your key points. Remember that you want the team members to be able to read your handout quickly. You also want this list to help yourself stay on track at the meeting.
You might want to start this section with a statement like this: “My disability in the area of [briefly describe your disability challenge] makes school difficult because… “
Then, you can make a list with a heading like this one:
Here’s what I want to talk about today:
- A favorite class, teacher or subject in school?
- A time during the school day that is hard for you?
- Your IEP goals?
- Something that helps you feel comfortable and do well?
- Something you want to change in your school schedule or program?
- Graduation requirements and when you plan to graduate?
- Your High School and Beyond Plan?
- Anything else that’s important to you?
If your parent or another support person takes notes at the meeting, it’s great to ask them to help make a list of Action Items. Make a simple chart to list:
- The agreement/action
- Name of person responsible
- Communication plan, so you have follow-through
If your meeting is part of a formal special education process, such as an IEP meeting, the school provides a Prior Written Notice (PWN) to remind everyone what you talked about at the meeting. Your handout and notes can be part of the PWN. If English isn’t your native language, the Prior Written Notice must be provided in your native language or another mode of communication that you can understand.
Good luck at your meeting, and good job for training to be an expert self-advocate!
The The Student Input Form for a Meeting with the School is here for easy download. . If a download is not possible, all the information is above. If you need any support with this form, please email PAVE
A Brief Overview
- FYSPRT (pronounced fiss-burt) is a hard acronym to learn, but it’s worth the effort for families and young people who want to talk about improving mental healthcare systems.
- Here’s what FYSPRT means: Family members, Youth and System Partners (professionals) get together at a “Round Table” (meaning everyone has an equal voice) to talk about issues related to emotional distress, mental illness and/or substance-use disorder. All participants share ideas about what helps and what could make things better.
- The Washington State Health Care Authority (HCA) provides a map of the 10 FYSPRT regions and includes contact information for local leaders and a schedule of where/when meetings are held.
- FYSPRT began after a class-action lawsuit against the state, TR v Dreyfus. The litigation resulted in development of the state’s out-patient mental-health services program for youth—Wraparound with Intensive Services (WISe).
- FYSPRT is a place where families provide feedback about WISe, but all community members are welcome—regardless of age or agency affiliation.
- Some regional FYSPRTs sponsor separate meetings and social events for youth.
Parents and young people who struggle with emotional distress, mental illness and/or substance-use disorder can feel powerless to affect change in a complicated medical system. The Family, Youth and System Partner Round Table (FYSPRT) provides a meeting space for family members and professionals to talk about what’s working and what isn’t working in mental healthcare. The groups also provide informal networking and can provide ways for families to meet up and support one another under challenging circumstances.
The state sponsors 10 FYSPRT groups to serve every county: A list of the groups and which counties they serve is included at the end of this article. Each group reports to a statewide FYSPRT, which provides information to state government to influence policy. The Washington State Health Care Authority (HCA) provides a map of the FYSPRT regions and includes contact information for local leaders and a schedule of where/when meetings are held.
FYSPRT began as part of a class-action lawsuit against the state, referred to as TR v Dreyfus. The litigation began in 2009, and settlements were mediated in 2012-13. The federal court found that Washington wasn’t providing adequate mental-health services to youth and required that the state start delivering intensive community-based mental-health treatment. The state responded by developing the Wraparound with Intensive Services (WISe) program for youth under 21 who are eligible for Medicaid. WISe teams provide a wide range of therapies and supports with a goal to keep the young person out of the hospital, which costs more and can be traumatizing.
Young people under 18 who need residential care are referred to the Children’s Long-Term Inpatient program: PAVE’s website provides an article about CLIP.
To provide accountability for the delivery of WISe services, the state created FYSPRT as a forum for families to provide feedback about how the program is working. The mission is to provide an equal platform for everyone within the community to strengthen resources and create new approaches to address behavioral needs of children and youth.
FYSPRT provides a space where youth impacted by behavioral health issues and their family members can share ideas about what works well and what would work better. The FYSPRT model is based on the belief that everyone’s unique perspective is equally important, and everyone is invited. For many parents and youth, FYSPRT becomes a place to bond and connect to support one another. Some regional FYSPRTs include separate meetings for youth, and those groups can become a key social outlet.
FYSPRT meetings are open to all interested community members. Each community has unique participants depending on what agencies work in the cities and towns within the region.
Staff who serve families through WISe are key participants. Other attendees are case managers from the state’s Medicaid-provider agencies, behavioral health counselors, foster-care workers, staff of homeless programs and staff and volunteers from affiliates of the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI). Other participants are leaders of support groups for youth in recovery or working with issues related to gender identity or sexuality. PAVE staff are regular attendees in many regions, and PAVE manages the Salish FYSPRT program.
Every area of the state of Washington has its own FYSPRT, overseen by the Health Care Authority. Each of the ten FYSPRT regions is comprised of a single county or up to eight adjoining counties. In order to create greater participation from the general public, transportation and childcare stipends are available for families and youth in most areas. Some groups provide free meals for everyone and/or gift card incentives for the families and young people who attend.
Here are links to each regional FYSPRT’s website and a list of the counties each represents:
Great Rivers Regional FYSPRT – Cowlitz, Grays Harbor, Lewis, Pacific
HI-FYVE – Pierce
North Central Washington FYSPRT – Chelan, Douglas, Grant, Okanogan
North Sound Youth and Family Coalition – Island, San Juan, Snohomish, Skagit, Whatcom
Northeast FYSPRT – Adams, Ferry, Lincoln, Pend Oreille, Spokane, Stevens
Salish FYSPRT – Clallam, Jefferson, Kitsap
Southeast FYSPRT – Asotin, Benton, Columbia, Franklin, Garfield, Kittitas, Whitman, Yakima
Southwest FYSPRT – Clark, Klickitat, Skamania
System of Care Partnership – Mason, Thurston
A Brief Overview
- Two Washington students die from suicide each week. In a typical high-school classroom of about 30 students, chances are high that 2-3 students have attempted suicide in the past year. Read on for more detail from the 2018 statewide Healthy Youth Survey.
- Approximately one in five youth experience a mental illness before age 25. About half of those with diagnosed conditions drop out of school.
- These outcomes make adolescence a critical time for mental health promotion, early identification and intervention. Read on for ideas about how to seek help.
- The Adolescent Behavioral Health Care Access Act, signed into law May 13, 2019, provides for more parent involvement in mental healthcare for youth 13-18.
- Seattle Children’s Hospital has a new referral helpline. Families can call 833-303-5437, Monday-Friday, 8-5, to connect with a referral specialist. The service is for families statewide.
- A mom in Graham, WA, launched a program to improve education about mental health after her son died by suicide in 2010. The Jordan Binion Project has trained about 500 Washington teachers with an evidence-based curriculum from Teen Mental Health.
- Emotional Disturbance is a federal category of disability under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). A student might qualify for an Individualized Education Program (IEP) under this category, regardless of academic ability. To qualify, a disabling condition must significantly impact access to learning. An educational evaluation also must show a need for specialized instruction.
- Parents can share these resources with school staff, who may be seeking more information about how to help youth struggling to maintain their mental health.
- Help is available 24/7 from the Suicide Prevention Lifeline: 1-800-273-TALK.
- Another crisis option is to text “HEAL” to 741741 to reach a trained Crisis Text Line counselor.
- For youth who need support related to LGBTQ issues, the Trevor Project provides targeted resources and a helpline: 866-488-7386.
The thousands of young people who send thank-you letters to Deb Binion didn’t always believe their lives were going to work out. One writer had attempted suicide and been hospitalized many times because of her bipolar disorder. Two years after finishing high school, she reported she was doing well and offered thanks for a course in mental health that helped her understand her illness, its impacts on her brain, and how to participate in her treatment. “It made a total difference in my life,” she said in her thank-you letter.
“Until she got the educational piece and understood her illness, nothing was helping,” Binion says. “No one had ever explained to her why she had this illness and what was occurring.”
The program, which Binion started after her son Jordan’s suicide in 2010, has trained about 500 school staff throughout Washington State to help young people understand mental illness and what to do to support themselves and others. Although the numbers are difficult to track, Binion estimates that about 100,000 Washington students receive education through the curriculum each year.
“My mission is to get this information to the kids,” says Binion, who runs the non-profit Jordan Binion Project from her home in Graham, WA. She says a short-term, limited pilot project with the Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI) showed promising results, with 60 teachers throughout Washington informally reporting that about 85 percent of students showed improvement in their “mental health literacy,” a key feature of the program.
Teachers are specially trained to provide the Mental Health Curriculum
The curriculum, available through TeenMentalHealth.org, was developed by a world-renowned adolescent psychiatrist and researcher, Stan Kutcher. He observed that classrooms often struggle to provide an emotionally safe learning environment for students with psychiatric conditions. Some attempts to provide education about mental health have created confusing and triggering circumstances for students impacted by illness and/or trauma, he found.
Kutcher, professor of psychiatry at Dalhousie University in Nova Scotia, Canada, responded with a model for training school staff in how to teach sensitive topics of mental illness:
- eating disorders
- attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
- obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
- bipolar disorder
- post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
- suicidal thinking
Deb Binion says the program was designed for students in grades 9-10, but middle-school and older students are also learning from it. She says the program takes about 8-12 hours to teach and that teachers in regular health classes, psychology classes, family and consumer science classes and others have taught the lessons.
Binion suggest that staff receive in-person training to understand how to create a safe learning environment for students. For example, teachers learn to provide individualized help without disclosing a student’s disability or medical condition to the class.
The topics can be confusing or triggering to some learners. Some of the videos might be difficult to watch because they include personal stories of self-harm, hospitalization and people suffering from emotional stress. The program may need individualized modifications for students in special education programs because of intellectual or developmental disabilities.
For information about how to bring a training to your area, individuals can contact Deb Binion through the Jordan Binion Project website or directly through her email: email@example.com.
Washington State recognizes a need for more education and direct support
OSPI, which oversees all school districts in Washington, provides an overview of Kutcher’s work and its connection to the Jordan Binion Project as part of the Mental Health & High School Curriculum Guide. Content in the guide was a collaboration between Kutcher and the Canadian Mental Health Association. At Dalhousie University in Nova Scotia, Kutcher serves as Sun Life Financial Chair in Adolescent Mental Health and Director of the World Health Organization Collaborating Center in Mental Health Training and Policy Development.
Washington State is aware that a lack of mental health services is impacting students. In 2018, OSPI released data that two children enrolled in Washington schools die by suicide weekly.
According to the 2018 Washington Healthy Youth Survey, at least one in three youth in all grades report feeling sad or hopeless for enough time to impact their activities. In ten years, those numbers increased by 10-20 percent across all grades. More than 900 schools administered the survey, representing all 39 Washington counties and 228 school districts.
About one in three 10th and 12th graders report feeling nervous, anxious or on edge, with an inability to stop worrying. From 2016 to 2018, the percentage experiencing these feelings increased for all grades. Rates of reported suicide have remained alarmingly high, with about 10 percent of students reporting that they have attempted suicide recently.
This means that in a typical high-school classroom of about 30 students, chances are high that two or three students have attempted suicide in the past year.
Female students and students who identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual report higher rates of considering, planning, and attempting suicide. For youth who need support related to LGBTQ issues, the Trevor Project provides targeted resources and a helpline: 866-488-7386.
High rates of suicide attempts also are reported among students who identify as American Indian or Alaskan Native (18 percent) and students who identify as Hispanic (13 percent). Help for all is available 24/7 from the Suicide Prevention Lifeline: 1-800-273-TALK. Another crisis option is to text “HEAL” to 741741 to reach a trained Crisis Text Line counselor.
Despite the alarming data and evidence that adult support can impact outcomes, only half of students say they have access to direct adult support when they feel extremely sad or suicidal.
The 2018 Healthy Youth Survey introduced a modified Children’s Hope Scale, which measures students’ ability to initiate and sustain action towards goals. Across grades, only about half of students feel hopeful for their futures. Students who identify as lesbian, gay or bisexual and students of color were less likely to report adult support and were less likely to be highly hopeful for their futures.
State, local, community and school efforts are crucial for supporting youth mental health. With the release of the survey in Spring, 2019, the state issued a guide to information and resources to provide more detail about the survey and to direct families and school staff toward sources for support.
An OSPI survey in 2018 found that the number one concern statewide is that students don’t receive enough direct support in mental health, counseling and advising at school. The Washington School-Based Health Alliance (WASBHA) is working with some districts who have varied grants throughout the state to build on-campus health clinics to address a range of student health-care needs, including mental health. The Alliance sponsored an all-day summit May 3, 2019, at the Seattle Flight Museum that was attended by several hundred professionals invested in building collaborations between public health agencies and schools. Throughout the day, professionals discussed how students are much more likely to seek a counselor at school than in the community and that outcomes improve when providers and school staff collaborate and provide individualized help focused on relationship-building.
New state law expands parent involvement in mental-health treatment
Youth older than 13 have the right to consent or not consent to any medical treatment in Washington State. Parents and lawmakers throughout 2018-2019 engaged in conversations about how that creates barriers to care for may teens who don’t fully grasp their mental condition or how to recover.
In response, lawmakers wrote and passed the Adolescent Behavioral Health Care Access Act (HB 1874), signed into law by Gov. Jay Inslee May 13, 2019. The new law allows behavioral health professionals to provide parents or guardians with certain treatment information if they determine the release of that information is appropriate and not harmful to the adolescent. The bill also permits parents and guardians to request outpatient treatment for their adolescent, expanding the current parent-initiated treatment process so that adolescents can get treatment before they reach the point of hospitalization.
“Parents across the state are desperate to be allowed to help their children struggling with mental health issues or a substance use disorder,” says Rep. Noel Frame from the Seattle area. “At the same time, we need to protect the rights and privacy of these youth. This bill strikes a balance by ensuring adolescents can continue to access treatment on their own, while giving concerned parents an avenue to help their children and be involved with their treatment.”
Parents also have a new option for helping their children and youth by contacting Seattle Children’s Hospital, which in 2019 launched a new referral helpline. Families can call 833-303-5437, Monday-Friday, 8-5, to connect with a referral specialist. The service is for families statewide. In addition to helping to connect families with services, the hospital will be positioned to identify gaps in the system through its engagement with families.
One in five youth are at risk
The Teen Mental Health website cites an international statistic that 1 in 5 youth experience a mental illness before age 25. Many of those illnesses lead to life challenges that require help, the agency concludes, and this makes adolescence a critical time for mental health promotion, prevention, early identification, and intervention. The agency provides a School-Based Pathway Through Care that promotes linkages between schools and healthcare agencies, parent involvement and strong educational programs that reduce stigma through knowledge and timely treatment access.
One way that Washington State has responded to the crisis is through promotion of trainings in Youth Mental Health First Aid. Through Project AWARE (Advancing Wellness and Resilience in Education) and other initiatives, Washington has grown a network of about 100 trainers for Youth Mental Health First Aid and about 4,000 first aid providers. These trained individuals can listen actively in order to offer immediate caring and can also refer youth to providers. OSPI reports that Project AWARE has led to 3,964 referrals for youth to connect with community- or school-based mental health services.
Washington has a program for treatment response for youth experiencing psychosis. The New Journeys Program is designed for youth 15-25 who are early in their diagnoses, but there is some flexibility in who might be eligible to participate. Families can contact the program for additional information about how to apply.
Information about psychosis, early warning signs and places to seek help are available through the website of the Washington Health Care Authority (HCA). The website contains a link to information about the Wraparound with Intensive Services program (WISe), which provides community case management for children and youth experiencing a high-level of impact from a mental illness.
Special Education is one pathway toward more help
Students access some aspects of mental health support through the special education system. Emotional Disturbance is a federal category of disability under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). In Washington State, the category is referred to as Emotional Behavior Disability (EBD). The IEP might list any set of these words or the initials EBD or ED.
A student might qualify for an Individualized Education Program (IEP) under this category, regardless of academic ability. A comprehensive educational evaluation can determine whether a student’s mental condition causes a significant disruption to the student’s ability to access school and learning and whether the student needs specialized instruction. Generally, that specialized instruction is provided through a category of education known as Social Emotional Learning (SEL). SEL can be provided in multiple tiers that might include schoolwide education, small group training and individualized programming. OSPI provides recommendations from a 2016 Social Emotional Learning Benchmarks Workgroup.
A student with a mental health condition also might qualify for an IEP under the category of Other Health Impairment (OHI), which can capture needs related to anxiety, ADHD, Tourette’s Syndrome or another specific diagnosis. Students with a mental health condition that co-occurs with another disability might qualify under another category, and Social Emotional Learning might be an aspect of a more comprehensive program. PAVE’s articles about the IDEA and the IEP provide further information about IEP process, the 14 categories of qualifying disabilities and access to special education services. A student with a mental health condition who doesn’t qualify for an IEP might qualify for a Section 504 plan.
If a student, because of a disability, is not accessing school and learning, then the school district holds the responsibility for appropriately evaluating that student and determining the level of support needed to provide access to a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE). Questions about FAPE might arise if a student with a mental health condition is not accessing school because of “school refusal,” which sometimes leads to truancy, or because a student is being disciplined a lot. Students with identified disabilities have protections in the disciplinary process; PAVE provides an article about school discipline.
Help NOW can mean a lifetime of better opportunities
The Center for Parent Information and Resources (ParentCenterHub.org) has a variety of resources related to mental health awareness, including a link to a video that details results from a national study. The study showed that students who qualified for special education programming because of Emotional Disturbance experienced the highest drop-out rates when they went into higher education, work and vocational programs. Meaningful relationships with adults who cared about them in school provided a significant protective factor. Students were more likely to succeed in life-after-high-school plans if specific caring adults provided a soft hand-off into whatever came next after graduation.
Here are a few additional resources:
- The Clay Center for Healthy Young Minds provides a variety of articles about how families and schools can better support youth with behavior and mental health disabilities, including an article about what to do When You Have An Explosive Child.
- A federal agency called the Child Mind Institute provides parents with guidance about getting good mental-health care for their children and has articles on specific diagnoses and what parents and schools might do.
- OSPI provides schools with resources related to mental health education, including information related to suicide awareness and prevention.
- PAVE provides a 40-minute webinar about suicide awareness.
- PAVE provides information about Social Emotional Learning (SEL) in a series of three articles.
- The Washington Health Care Authority manages the Children’s Long-Term Inpatient Program (CLIP) and the Wraparound with Intensive Services (WISE) program. For more information, see PAVE’s article about CLIP.
- For 1:1 assistance, families can reach out to PAVE’s Parent Training and Information Center through our online Help Request Form or by calling 800-572-7368.
- Youth Mental Health in Washington State Infographic
- NBC featured the Binion family and the work of their foundation.
Here are some articles specifically about Bipolar Disorder in Youth: