Steps to Read, Understand, and Develop an Initial IEP

A Brief Overview

  • A first-time IEP document is a lot to absorb. This article provides tips to help family members read through a draft IEP and prepare to participate on the IEP team that finalizes the Individualized Education Program before services begin.
  • Remember, the school’s first version is a DRAFT, and family members of the IEP team have the right to participate in program development.
  • Under state and federal law, parents have the right to information about their child’s education—including IEPs—in a language they can understand. The Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI) provides guidance about language-access rights in multiple languages.
  • Parents or guardians can request a specific method for regularly checking in with school staff.  A weekly or bi-weekly email is common, or parents can arrange to get something in the backpack, a phone call, a text…. Ask for what works and be sure the agreement is included in the Prior Written Notice (PWN), a formal letter sent to parents after meetings and before (prior to…) implementation of services.
  • Services are ongoing unless a parent officially signs a document to revoke services or if a new educational evaluation finds that the student is no longer eligible.

Full Article

After a student is determined eligible for an Individualized Education Program (IEP), the process of building the IEP can feel intimidating. This article provides tips to help family members read through a draft IEP and prepare to participate on the IEP team that will finalize the program before services begin. The process is the same regardless of the age of the student. IEPs can support students ages 3-21, in preschool through high school graduation or aging out at 21.

Washington State requires schools to start IEP services within 30 calendar days of the eligibility finding. That means school staff generally start drafting the IEP right after the school and family meet to talk about the evaluation and the student’s eligibility. A family member can ask to extend the 30-day deadline, but schools cannot delay the process without parental consent.

Tip: If the school wants to have a meeting to discuss eligibility and IEP development all at once, parents can request a two-meeting process instead to have time to digest the information and fully participate in decision-making.

What is the student’s eligibility category?

Take note of the eligibility category that entitles the student to an IEP. This category is decided during the evaluation review meeting. Sometimes more than one of 14 possible categories applies, and the IEP team chooses the category that seems the best fit.

Once chosen, the category is less important than the services that are needed for a student to access meaningful learning. Parents may want to be aware of implicit biases associated with certain eligibility categories and ensure that school staff are talking about the whole child and not using labels to fit children into pre-built programs. For example, there’s no such thing as a “Behavior IEP” or an “Academic IEP.” Individual children have programs built to meet their needs, based on evaluations that highlight their strengths as well as deficits. Read on for information about the rights of children with disabilities to be served as general education students first—in the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE).

The eligibility category is listed on the “Cover Page” of the IEP document, near the name, birth date, and other personal details about the student. PAVE provides an article, Evaluations Part 1, that describes the evaluation process and includes a list of 14 eligibility categories that apply in Washington State.

Know what’s in the IEP before you meet

The IEP document is a lot to absorb, and family members are more prepared to support their child when they review the IEP draft before meeting with the IEP team for the first time. The document may be 10-20 pages long (or longer), but don’t be intimidated! A child’s education is worth taking time to read for understanding.

Be sure to ask for a copy of the IEP draft with enough time to look it over before the meeting. Some IEPs have only a few services and goals while others are quite complex. The amount of time a family needs for review also might depend on whether the document is translated into a language besides English.

Under state and federal law, parents have the right to information about their child’s education in a language they can understand. The Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI) provides guidance about language-access rights in multiple languages.

Below are suggestions for looking through the IEP to prepare for a meeting. Use this list like a map guiding you through the IEP document.

Start with the Service Matrix

The Service Matrix is about halfway through the IEP and looks like a chart/grid. These are the suggested services. Remember, the school’s first version is a DRAFT IEP, and family members of the IEP team have the right to participate in program development.

  • The services are how a student receives Specially Designed Instruction (SDI) in each area where the student has significant deficits that make them eligible for special education.
  • Notice how many minutes are being offered to support learning in each area of SDI. The SDI supports at least one goal for each subject area, so consider whether there’s enough time for the learning that will support progress (read on for more about goals).
  • The Service Matrix includes Related/Ancillary Services if the student is eligible for them. These are therapeutic services, such as occupational, physical, or speech therapy. Mental health counseling and parent training (for example, to learn behavioral strategies) may be listed as Related Services.
  • Sometimes Related Services are offered through “consultation,” meaning that a specialist will make recommendations to school staff but won’t work directly with the student. Notice how services are listed and whether you agree that they will meet the student’s needs.
  • If a child will transition to a different level of school within the year, there may be two grids. One grid is for the rest of the current year, and the other grid is for the next academic year at the new school. Service minutes are often slightly different for elementary, middle, and high school.
  • Consider whether the IEP team will schedule a “transition conference” to talk about the switch to a new level of school and how services might change.
  • The grid includes a location for each service. Notice whether the student is going to be pulled out of class to receive a service or whether the services will be “pushed in” to a general education classroom.
  • Make note of any questions or concerns about the Service Matrix that you want to include in your agenda for the IEP meeting.

Refer to the Present Levels statements

The Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance (PLOP for short) are within the first few pages of the IEP. This is the part of the IEP with the most room for paragraphs about what’s going on. These statements come mostly from evaluation, and parents, teachers, and service providers may contribute language and information to enhance them. This section of the IEP explains why the student needs services.

  • Consider whether the Service Matrix adequately addresses the needs identified in the Present Levels.  
  • Goals are described within the Present Levels and again in another section of the IEP that is just for goal setting. Make sure nothing is left out and that language is consistent throughout the IEP.
  • Read the goals carefully. The Present Levels statements provide a “baseline,” to show where a student starts before new learning begins.
  • Are the goals SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, Time-Bound)?
  • In particular, is each goal Achievable with the instructional time offered through the Service Matrix?
  • Are any goals too easy?
  • Students with IEPs are entitled to a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE). FAPE includes the right to an IEP that is reasonably calculated to enable progress appropriate in light of the child’s circumstances. Are the goals set at the right level to support meaningful progress?
  • Parents can suggest changes to the goals at the IEP meeting.
  • Parents can ask what teaching strategy (SDI) will help the student reach the annual goals. Here’s a way to ask: “Can you help me understand HOW you will be teaching my child, so I can use similar words and strategies when I’m helping my child learn?”
  • A general description of the teaching strategy can be incorporated into the Present Levels statements.
  • PAVE provides an article with more tips about goal setting.
  • Write down questions and concerns about Present Levels or Goals for the team meeting.

Compare Service Matrix and LRE statement

The Present Levels, Goals, and Service Matrix are the heart of a student’s Individualized Education Program (IEP). After reading through these sections,notice if any of the student’s services are listed as “concurrent,” which means they are provided within general education (push in). Notice also which services are being offered in a separate (pull out) classroom. Then keep going in the IEP document to find a statement about the student’s Least Restrictive Environment (LRE).

  • A student is entitled to FAPE in the Least Restrictive Environment to the maximum extent appropriate.
  • Consider whether the IEP team has adequately considered that special education is a service, not a place.
  • Are there additional creative ways to consider how services might be “push in” instead of “pull out” to support more inclusion, if appropriate, to meet the student’s needs?
  • The LRE page includes a grid to mark what was considered and chosen as a range/percentage of time that a student will spend in special education versus general education.
  • Consider whether you agree with the LRE determination and note any concerns for the IEP team to discuss.

Read the list of accommodations.

Accommodations are designed to enable a student with a disability to access learning in ways that are equitable. Equity doesn’t mean equal. Equity exists when a student gets support (like a wheelchair ramp, toileting plan, earphones, or a break-space option) to access what typically developing classmates can access without support.

  • Consider how the accommodations will look and feel to the student. Will the student be able to understand and self-advocate for them, or will the student need more coaching from teachers for the supports to be meaningful?
  • If possible, collect student input or ensure the student can attend the IEP meeting to participate in discussion about their supports and services.
  • Are the supports individualized and thoughtful or pulled from a pre-built list? Be sure they address needs identified through evaluation and by the student, family, and other people who truly know this student.
  • A student does not need to be “eligible” for an accommodation. There simply needs to be demonstrated impact on a “major life activity.” See PAVE’s article about Section 504.
  • The accommodations section of an IEP or a Section 504 Plan can travel with a student into higher education, vocational education, or work.
  • Is there anything the student needs that is missing? The Present Levels section at the front of the IEP might provide insight.
  • “Teacher check for understanding” is a common school accommodation. Parents may want to ask how the teacher will develop a system for doing that.
  • Parents can ask how the school will share the list of accommodations with all relevant staff. For example, does a bus driver, school nurse, or lunch server need to read this list? Would it be reasonable for the student to hand-carry a handout version?
  • If the student will transition into a new level of school within the year, consider how to discuss the accommodations with the new teaching team next term.
  • Notice if there are any “modifications,” which would include changes to the expectations—such as doing a shorter assignment or showing work in an alternative format. Does anything need to be added?
  • Make note of any concerns related to accommodations or modifications and plan to share those with the IEP team.

Accommodations for state testing

Note any concerns about how a child will be accommodated on standardized tests. Students with IEPs may be allowed extra time, an alternative place or time to take the tests, or something else. Try to imagine the experience of testing from the student’s perspective and consider how accommodations will enable the student to demonstrate knowledge.

Communication and Prior Written Notice (PWN)

Parents can request a specific method for regularly checking in with school staff.  A weekly or bi-weekly email is common, or parents can arrange to get something in the backpack, a phone call, a text…. Ask for what works. At the IEP team meeting, the group can agree on a communication strategy.

A communication agreement is formally written into the Prior Written Notice (PWN), which the school sends to parents after the IEP meeting.

A parent can request further changes to the IEP and note any disagreements by submitting a note to attach to the PWN, which becomes part of the formal IEP document. The PWN includes detail about what the IEP team has agreed to implement and when services are scheduled to begin.

Sign Consent for services to begin

Once the team agrees on a final version of the IEP, a parent must sign consent for services to begin. From that point on, families have the right to request an IEP team meeting any time there are concerns about progress or services. The IEP team is required to meet at least once a year. At meetings, family participants sign to show their participation and attendance.

Services are ongoing unless a parent officially signs a document to revoke services or if a new evaluation finds that the student is no longer eligible. A new evaluation is required at least every three years to determine ongoing eligibility and any necessary changes to the student’s program. A parent who disagrees with a school district evaluation can request an Independent Educational Evaluation (IEE) at district expense. See PAVE’s article: Evaluations Part 2.

Respite Offers a Break for Caregivers and Those They Support

A Brief Overview

  • Respite offers a short-term break for caregivers and those they support. This article provides information and resources to get started seeking respite services.
  • Lifespan Respite Washington, a program of PAVE, provides vouchers with up to $1,000 per qualifying household, to fund respite care.
  • Pathways to Respite, an online booklet published by several Washington agencies, provides further guidance. The guidebook defines caregiver stress and explains why breaks are critical to everyone’s well-being.
  • The ARCH National Respite Network and Resource Center provides a free, downloadable 17-page guidebook, ABCs of Respite: A Consumer Guide for Family Caregivers. ARCH stands for Access to Respite Care and Help. The ARCH resource center also provides information and resources specific to Respite During COVID-19.
  • Veteran’s families may qualify for respite through the Program of Comprehensive Assistance for Family Caregivers (PCAFC), operated by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs. The final section of this article includes additional military-specific resources.

Full Article

Modern families come in many styles. Primary caregivers may be parents, and they might be other relatives (kinship providers), friends, or neighbors. “Care recipient” is a term for anyone who requires assistance for daily living. “Caregiver” refers to anyone who provides regular assistance to a child or adult with a chronic or disabling conditions.

Caregivers and care recipients develop unique rhythms and relationships. Sometimes, both need to press pause and reset. Pathways to Respite, an online booklet published by several Washington agencies, provides guidance about caregiver stress:

“Putting the needs of everyone else before your own may solve an immediate stress; however, in the long-term, it can lead to increased anxiety, frustration, overwhelming feelings, resentment, depression, burnout, and even illness. Whether you think of yourself as a caregiver or not, these are all signs of caregiver stress.”

Respite offers a short-term break for caregivers and those they support. Time apart can boost well-being for all: While caregivers temporarily shift their focus to self-care, care recipients have time to meet new people and explore new interests.

Finding an appropriate respite service and organizing payment can feel challenging. This article provides guidance to simplify the steps.

Check standards and safety measures

When researching a respite agency, caregivers can assess whether the agency meets standards and is following appropriate safety measures, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Lifespan Respite Washington provides a checklist with questions to consider. Here are a few examples:

  • How are the workers selected and trained?
  • Can the respite worker administer medications or assist with medical tasks?
  • If the provider will be driving the care recipient, do they have a valid driver’s license?
  • How are emergencies and problems handled?
  • What safety measures are in place to protect against COVID-19?

Registered, publicly funded respite providers are required to meet certain standards and qualifications, including background checks and training. The public agency that pays for the service is responsible to track and share information about those procedures and quality measures. If respite is paid for by private medical or long-term care insurance, providers must meet the insurance company’s standards. Caregivers can ask an insurance company representative to explain the standards and how they are upheld.

The ARCH National Respite Network and Resource Center provides a free, downloadable 17-page guidebook, ABCs of Respite: A Consumer Guide for Family Caregivers. ARCH stands for Access to Respite Care and Help. The ARCH resource center also provides information and resources specific to Respite During COVID-19.

What respite services would be most helpful?

Respite includes a broad range of services. Some organizations offer short-term, overnight stays in their facilities and some provide daytime services. Some respite services are delivered into the home, including these examples:

  • personal hygiene care
  • meal preparation
  • light housekeeping
  • companionship, activities, or supervision

Community Living Connections (CLC) provides an online assessment to help caregivers figure out what type of help they may want or need. Washington State’s CLC is part of a national collaborative that includes the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Veterans Administration, and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services.

Washington’s Pathways to Respite booklet includes “fill-in-the-blanks” tools to help define needs, including the following example:

“I would like to take a break, but I am concerned that___________” and “If I had some time to myself, I would _____________.”

Pathways to Respite was developed by Informing Families, a resource of the Washington State Developmental Disabilities Council, in partnership with the Washington State Developmental Disabilities Administration, Aging & Long-Term Support Administration, and PAVE, which administers Lifespan Respite WA.

Determine payment to choose a provider

If a family will pay directly for respite services, providers are easily found online. Here are some suggestions to launch a search:

  • Adult Day Services Washington State
  • After-school programs children with special health care needs Washington State
  • In-home respite care Washington State

Another way to navigate the provider system is to connect to a website managed by SEIU 775:  The Service Employees International Union is comprised of independent service providers who have a collective bargaining agreement with Washington state’s Department of Social and Health Services (DSHS).

If a care recipient is eligible for respite through private medical insurance, the insurance company will list approved providers.

Publicly funded respite programs also provide lists of registered providers. Family caregivers who have respite funding through Medicaid or the Developmental Disabilities Administration (DDA) can use CarinaCare.com, an online tool to connect individuals with providers. A Who’s Who page describes provider credentials.

Vouchers are available from Lifespan Respite WA

Lifespan Respite WA provides information about how to apply for a voucher. Vouchers are “mini-grants” for unpaid caregivers supporting a family member, friend or neighbor who has a special need or condition. The vouchers, up to $1,000 per qualifying household, can be used with any of the registered Lifespan Respite Providers

To qualify, the caregiver or care recipient cannot be enrolled in a respite or Medicaid personal care program. (Exceptions are made for persons on a waiting list and not scheduled to get respite services within 30 days of applying for a Lifespan voucher.) Additionally, a caregiver must:

  • Be unpaid
  • Provide 40 or more hours a week of care
  • Not receive respite from any other program
  • Live in Washington State
  • Be unable to afford to pay privately for respite care

Who qualifies for free or low-cost respite care?

In Washington State, eligibility for free or low-cost respite services may depend on a person’s circumstances or the category of disability.

  • Seniors and Adults with Disabilities
    • Seniors 65 and older who meet functional and financial eligibility can receive a variety of services through Home and Community Services (HCS).
    • Unpaid caregivers of adults 55 and older who meet functional and financial eligibility can receive respite care and other needed support services like caregiver education, support groups, housework and errands and other services.
  • People with Developmental Disabilities (All Ages) and Children with Disabilities
    • Children and adults with developmental disabilities who meet eligibility criteria for Developmental Disabilities Administration (DDA) may be able to receive respite, personal care, assistive technology, community engagement support, and other services provided through Home and Community-Based Services and Community First Choice (CFC).
    • Children with disabilities who are not DDA eligible may still be able to receive CFC through DDA.

How to apply:

Foster care respite

Respite care is available for foster parents licensed by the Division of Licensed Resources (DLR), a Tribal agency, or a Child Placing Agency (CPA). Unlicensed relative caregivers or those determined to be “suitable person placements” also can receive respite, as can caregivers assigned by the Department of Children, Youth, and Families (DCYF) or a Washington Tribe. 

Child Specific Respite (CSR) is linked directly to the medical, behavioral, or special needs of an individual child. CSR authorizes respite relief to families providing care to a child placed by DCYF on a case-by-case basis, consistent with the written service plan for the child.

Veterans and Military Family Caregivers

Veteran’s families may qualify for respite through the Program of Comprehensive Assistance for Family Caregivers (PCAFC), operated by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs. PCAFC offers up to 30 hours of respite: Program options, eligibility and the application process are described in a downloadable booklet published Oct. 1, 2020.

The Elizabeth Dole Foundation and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs offer Respite Relief for Military and Veteran Caregivers, no-cost, short-term relief with the help of in-home care professionals. See Hidden Heroes for further information.

Active-duty military and Activated Reserve or National Guard family caregivers may be eligible for respite care through TRICARE, the military healthcare system. Here are resources for military family caregivers:

  • Respite care for primary caregivers of service members injured in the line of duty can be found on the TRICARE website.
  • Extended Care Health Option (ECHO) can be a respite resource for caregivers of non-military family members.
  • Some installations have respite funding available when the care recipient is enrolled in the Exceptional Family Member Program.
  • Coast Guard family caregivers have the Special Needs Program which may offer respite or funding for respite:
  • Coast Guard Mutual Assistance has Respite Care Grants available for eligible Coast Guard clients who have responsibility 24 hours per day to care for an ill or disabled family member who lives in the same household.