Early Learning Transition: When Birth-3 Services End

The Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) ends when a child turns 3. A transition to a preschool plan with an Individualized Education Program (IEP) requires a new evaluation and is a team-led process:

Planning begins 6-9 months before the third birthday.

  • The Family Resource Coordinator (FRC) schedules a transition conference to design a written Transition Plan.
  • The transition includes an evaluation that is conducted by the local school district and usually begins 2-3 months before the child’s third birthday.
  • If the child is determined eligible, the child will transition from a family-centered program of early learning (IFSP) into a school-based program (IEP).
  • Parent participation is critical: You are an important member of the transition planning team!

To qualify for an IEP, the child must meet evaluation criteria under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Criteria for Birth-3 services (Part C of the IDEA) are slightly different than the criteria for Special Education programming available for ages 3-21 (Part B of the IDEA).

To qualify for an IEP: (1) The student is determined to have a qualifying disability.  (2) The disability adversely impacts education. (3) The evaluation indicates a need for specially designed instruction.

Differences in Eligibility

IDEA Part C
(Also called Early Intervention -IFSP)

IDEA Part B
(Also called Special Education – IEP)
25% or 1.5 SD (Standard Deviation) Below the mean in one area of development – OR- 2 SD (Standard Deviation ) below the mean in one or more areas of development – OR –
Diagnosed physical or medical condition that has a high probability of resulting in delay  1.5 SD below the mean in two or more areas of development

Qualifying Disability Categories for IEP:

  • Developmental Delay (ages 3-8)
  • Specific Learning Disability
  • Intellectual Disability
  • Autism
  • Hearing Impairment
  • Emotional Disturbance
  • Deaf-blindness
  • Multiple Disabilities
  • Orthopedic Impairment
  • Other Health Impairment
  • Deafness
  • Speech/Language Impairment
  • Traumatic Brain Injury

A child who doesn’t qualify for an IEP:

  • May qualify for a Section 504 plan, which provides accommodations under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 when:
    • The disability significantly limits one or more major life activities.
    • The student needs accommodations to access the general education curriculum.
  • May qualify for other services like Head Start, co-operative pre-school, paid pre-school or day care with early achievers, play-to-learn programs, and other early learning opportunities in a community setting.

Use this checklist to help track your family’s transition steps:

6-9 months before the child’s third birthday:

  • The Family Resource Coordinator (FRC) starts talking about transition.
  • The FRC transmits your child’s records to the school system, with your written consent. The most recent IFSP and evaluations/assessments are included.
  • If your child is potentially eligible for Part B services, a transition conference is scheduled.
  • Community resources are located.

Transition Conference:

  • Parent’s rights in special education are explained.
  • Options for early childhood special education and other appropriate services are discussed.
  • A transition time line is developed.
  • A transition plan is written into the IFSP.

Evaluation:

  • If you agree, you sign consent for evaluation.
  • Records from Early Intervention Services are received at the school.
  • Information from the family is considered.
  • Evaluation is completed, and the eligibility meeting is held within 35 school days so that an IEP can be developed before the child’s third birthday.

IEP Meeting:

  • The IEP meeting is scheduled with a formal written invitation with date, time and location.
  • Discussion and decision-making include the family, the FRC (with parent permission), and an early childhood special education staff member.
  • Eligibility for special education is decided.
  • If the child is eligible, the Draft IEP is brought to the team meeting and you will have the opportunity to agree or disagree.
  • You receive a copy of your rights and procedural safeguards.
  • If you agree, you sign consent for services to begin.

The IEP in action:

  • The child makes the transition from Early Intervention to Early Childhood Special Education or another pre-kindergarten arrangement, if chosen.
  • The IEP is in place by our child’s third birthday.
  • The team of professionals and parents continue working together to resolve any issues that arise.
  • All IEP team members communicate during this time of change.

What’s Next when Early Childhood Services End at Age 3?

A Brief Overview

  • Services for families with infants and very young children include family-focused, home-based support. Families are served with an Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP). An IFSP ends when the child turns 3.
  • A child who qualifies for an Individualized Education Program (IEP) receives those services at school. Not all children who qualified for an IFSP will quality for an IEP. An IEP is for children ages 3-21, or until high-school graduation.
  • Families may transition from getting in-home help for their child with special needs to participating as members of an IEP team. This can feel like a big change. The information in this article can empower parents.
  • Transition planning starts at least half a year before the child’s third birthday. Providers, teachers, school administrators and the family start thinking and collaborating early about what the child might need to do well.
  • Read on to learn what parents need to know when a young child with special needs makes the transition from Birth-3 services into preschool or another program.
  • A parent-support agency called Informing Families provides a 12-minute video to guide parents through the early-learning transition process. 

Full Article

When a child is born with a disability or the family realizes early that an impairment might impact a young child’s ability to learn and develop at a typical rate, the family can get help from the state. Early Support for Infants and Toddlers (ESIT) is managed by Washington’s Department of Children, Youth, and Families (DCYF).

Services for families with infants and very young children include family-focused, home-based support. When a child is ready to graduate from those early-learning services, the school district determines whether to conduct an educational evaluation to see whether the child qualifies for school-based services. If a child qualifies, the family and school district work together to generate an Individualized Education Program (IEP), which can begin at age 3 in preschool.

A child who qualifies for an IEP receives those services at school. Families transition from getting in-home help for their child with special needs to participating as members of the IEP team. The goals change, and parents help teachers and school staff talk about what the child needs to successfully access school and learning. This transition can be disorienting to some families. Read on for more detail.

Early Intervention can start from birth

Early intervention services are guaranteed by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), under “Part C” of the IDEA. The U.S. Department of Education manages a federal grant program under the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) that helps states manage early intervention programs to support infants and young children and their families.

Part C services are available for infants and young children who:

  1. Experience developmental delays, which are medically diagnosed to impact cognitive, physical, communication, social-emotional and/or adaptive skills
  2. Have a diagnosed physical or mental condition that has a high probability of resulting in a developmental delay

Washington’s ESIT program assigns agencies in each county to serve as a “lead agency” to coordinate early learning services and testing. The lead agency works with service providers and the family to review a child’s medical record, discuss any observations by caregivers, and conduct screenings to see what’s going on and whether the issues of concern meet criteria under Part C for early intervention. 

When a child is found eligible for services, a Family Resource Coordinator (FRC) manages the case. The FRC helps to develop an Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP). Each plan is unique and may involve individualized instruction, therapy services and supported access to community resources. The plan is designed around the needs of the child and family and is not based on a predetermined program model.

Family-based, early learning services end on the child’s third birthday. A new educational evaluation is required to see whether the student qualifies for an IEP under “Part B” of the IDEA.

Part B services are available for children ages 3-21 (or until high-school graduation) who:

  1. Have a qualifying disability in at least one of 14 federal qualifying categories
  2. Are significantly affected by that disability at school (“Significant Educational Impact” is determined with evidence and data)
  3. Require specialized instruction to overcome the barriers of that disabling condition

To qualify for an IEP under the IDEA, a student meets criteria in one of 14 disability categories

Autism

Deaf-blindness

Deafness

Emotional Disturbance

Hearing Impairment

Intellectual Disability

Multiple Disabilities

Orthopedic Impairment

Other Health Impairment

Specific Learning Disability

Speech / Language Impairment

Traumatic Brain Injury

Visual Impairment/Blindness

Developmental Delay (ages 0-8)

 

Note that the disability category of developmental delay can qualify a child for free, family-focused services to age 3 and school-based, IEP services through age 8.

Helpers get creative during “Part C-to-B Transition” planning

The FRC helps the family and school district get ready. Often this is referred to as “Part C-to-B Transition” planning, so it’s helpful when families understand that Parts C and B come from federal law, the IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act), designed to ensure that children with disabilities get the help they need to be successful at school and prepared for life.

For families who have received services through the state’s early-learning program (ESIT), Part C-to-B Transition planning starts at least half a year before the child’s third birthday. Providers, teachers, school administrators and the family start thinking and collaborating about what the child might need to do well. The work includes a “Transition Planning Conference,” which happens about 90 days before a child turns 3. The participants at this meeting write a plan for what services or community supports the child might receive. 

Each plan is unique and designed to respond to individual needs. A child’s plan might indicate need for a specific child-care setting or medical-based therapies. The plan might include a referral to a specific, state-funded special-education preschool program through Head Start or the Early Childhood Education and Assistance Program (ECEAP, pronounced “E-Cap”). A transition plan also can name local playgroups or parent-support networks to connect the family to community resources. If a child’s educational evaluation has determined that the child is eligible for an IEP, then information about that is included.

Not all children who qualified for early-learning support will qualify for an IEP. Children who are not eligible for IEP services might be eligible to receive accommodations and support through a Section 504 Plan.

Early learning isn’t the only pathway to an IEP evaluation

Children who didn’t receive early-learning interventions can also be evaluated to determine whether they qualify for school-based services that can start as young as age 3 and can continue through age 21, or until a student graduates from high school.

Anyone with concerns about a child can refer the child for an educational evaluation. These referrals usually come from parents, teachers, medical providers or early-learning specialists. When a concerned adult formally requests an evaluation from the school district (best-practice is to make the request in writing), then the district is bound by the IDEA to respond to that request within 25 school days. PAVE provides a comprehensive article about the evaluation process.

The school district has a responsibility under the Child Find mandate of the IDEA to seek out and evaluate children with known or suspected disabilities who may need services. 

When a school district agrees to evaluate, parents sign consent for the assessments to begin. The IDEA requires schools to complete an evaluation within 35 school days. For a child receiving early-learning services, the first IEP meeting is required on or before the child’s third birthday.

Families may invite whomever they want to an IEP meeting. For example, they can invite the Family Resource Coordinator (FRC), a family member, a friend or any other support person. 

If the school district does not conduct an educational evaluation, or if the evaluation indicates that the child doesn’t qualify for school-based, IEP services, parents have the right to disagree with the school’s decision. The family can request a written statement that describes the school district’s position, with any information or data that was used to justify the decision.

Parents have rights to disagree through a variety of dispute engagement options. PAVE provides comprehensive articles about evaluation, IEP process and Procedural Safeguards, Student and Parent Rights.

PAVE’s Parent Training and Information (PTI) center provides technical assistance and can help parents understand how to participate in their child’s learning. Got to: wapave.org/get-help or call (253) 565-2266, 1-800-5-PARENT ext.115

The Arc of Washington hosts local Parent-to-Parent (P2P) programs across the state. Families can request a “support parent match” to talk with another parent who has already navigated this process. Visit Arcwa.org for more information.

Additional Resources:
Informing Families – informingfamilies.org
Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI) – k12.wa.gov   
OSPI Early Childhood services –  k12.wa.us/Specialeducation/earlychildhood
Early Intervention Resources in English and Spanish – ParentCenterHub.org
Washington State Department of Children, Youth, and Families – dcyf.wa.gov

If you are concerned about a child’s development:

IDEA: The Foundation of Special Education

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is a federal law that was passed in 1990 and has been amended. The IDEA provides children with qualifying disabilities, from birth to age 21, with the right to a free public education that is specifically designed to meet their individual needs.

Some important concepts carried over from the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, passed in 1975. That was the first United States law that required schools to provide Special Education to all children with disabilities. This article provides a quick summary of the IDEA, which is unique as a law that provides an individual entitlement.

Entitlement means that a child with unique needs gets those needs served on an individual basis, not based on a system or program that’s already built and available. The strengths and challenges of a specific student are assessed, and a team including family members and professionals works together to design a program.

The local school district is responsible for providing the program—specialized instruction, services, accommodations and anything else that the team has identified as necessary to provide the student with a high-quality education. Progress measurements are guaranteed under the IDEA to ensure that the student finds meaningful success, in light of the circumstances of disability. If a neighborhood school cannot provide the services and programming that are deemed necessary, then the school district is responsible for creating a program and placement that does meet the student’s needs.

The federal law drives how states design their own special education policies and procedures. Title 34, Part 104 is the non-discrimination federal statute under the Office of Civil Rights Department of Education. In Washington State, rules for the provision of special education are in Chapter 392-172A of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC).

The IDEA is written in three parts: A, B and C. Part A describes the general goals and purpose of the law. The right of a child with disabilities to receive an education that prepares that child for adult life is stated: ​”Disability is a natural part of the human experience and in no way diminishes the right of individuals to participate in or contribute to society…

“Improving educational results for children with disabilities is an essential element of our national policy of ensuring equality of opportunity, full participation, independent living, and economic self-sufficiency for individuals with disabilities.”

Part B of the IDEA covers children ages 3 through 21—or until graduation from high school. Students who receive services through an Individualized Education Program (IEP) are covered under Part B, and the principles listed below describe IDEA’s Part B protections.

Part C protects children Birth to age 3 who need family support for early learning. ​The disability category of developmental delay overlaps early learning and IEP and can qualify a child for free, family-focused services to age 3 and school-based services through age 8.

To qualify for an IEP under the IDEA, a student meets criteria in one of 14 disability categories
Autism Deaf -blindness Deafness
Emotional Disturbance Hearing Impairment Intellectual Disability
Multiple Disabilities Orthopedic Impairment Other Health Impairment
Specific Learning Disability Speech / Language Impairment Traumatic Brain Injury
Visual Impairment/Blindness Developmental Delay (ages 0-8) Traumatic Brain Injury

The disability must be found to have an adverse impact on learning. When a student qualifies for services, specialized instruction is recommended to help the student overcome the impact of the disability in order to access meaningful learning. PAVE provides comprehensive articles about evaluation and the IEP process.

IDEA’s Primary Principles:

  1. Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE): Students with disabilities who need a special kind of teaching or other help have the right to an education that is not only free but also “appropriate,” designed just for them. Under IDEA rules, schools provide special education students with “access to FAPE,” so that’s a common way to talk about whether the student’s program is working.
  2. Appropriate Evaluation: The IDEA requires schools to take a closer look at children with potential disabilities. There are rules about how quickly those evaluations get done. The results provide information that the school and parents use to make decisions about how the child’s education can be improved.
  3. Individualized Education Program (IEP): The IEP is a dynamic program, not a packet of paper. The document that describes a student’s special education program is carefully written and needs to be reviewed at least once a year by a team that includes school staff and parents/guardians. Every student on an IEP gets some extra help from teachers, but the rest of the program depends on what a student needs to learn. Learning in school isn’t just academic subjects. Schools also help students learn social and emotional skills and general life skills. By age 16, an IEP includes a plan for life beyond high school, and helping the student make a successful transition into being an adult can be a primary goal of the IEP.
  4. Least Restrictive Environment (LRE): The IDEA says that students should be in class with non-disabled classmates “to the maximum extent appropriate.” That means that regular classrooms and school spaces are first choice as the “least restrictive” places. If the school has provided extra help in the classroom but the special education student still struggles to be successful, then the IEP team considers other options, such as a structured learning classroom. The school explains placement and LRE in writing on the IEP document.
  5. Parent and Student Participation: The IDEA makes it clear that parents or legal guardians are equal partners with school staff in making decisions about their student’s education. When the student turns 18, educational decision-making is given to the student. The school does its best to bring parents and students into the meetings, and there are specific rules about how the school provides written records and meeting notices.
  6. Procedural Safeguards: The school provides parents with a written copy of their rights at referral and yearly thereafter. Parents may receive procedural safeguards any time they request them. They also may receive a copy if they file a citizen’s request or a due process complaint. Procedural safeguards are offered when a school removes a student for more than 10 days in a school year as part of a disciplinary action. When parents and schools disagree, these rights describe the actions that a parent can take informally or formally.

    PAVE provides information, resources and, in some circumstances 1:1 support through our Parent Training and Information (PTI) center. To get help, reach out through our Help Request Form or by calling 800-572-7368.

Evaluations Part 2: Next Steps if the School Says ‘No’ to Your Request

A Variety of Choices:

Parents have a variety of choices if the school denies an initial request to evaluate a student for special education. Here are some options:

  1. Consider whether disability is a factor. Your child’s struggles at school will not provide a qualifying basis for special education unless a disability is determined to have an impact. The general rule is that a school must evaluate your child if there is reason to suspect a disability. When considering why you suspect a disability, it’s helpful to review the qualifying categories outlined by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA):Autism, Deafness, Deaf-Blindness, Hearing Impairment, Intellectual Disabilities, Multiple Disabilities, Orthopedic Impairment, Other Health Impairment, Serious Emotional Disturbance, Specific Learning Disability, Speech or Language Impairment, Traumatic Brain Injury, and Visual Impairment (including Blindness). For more detailed information about these 13 categories, please visit the Parent Center Hub.
  1. Make sure your request was in writing. If your request was made during a casual conversation, you will want to try again with a formal written request. You can send your formal request by email, certified mail or in person. If you hand deliver your letter, make sure to have your copy date and time stamped so you have a receipt. The school has 25 school days (not counting weekends and holidays) to respond. Address your letter to the district’s special education director or program coordinator, and make sure that your request includes the following details:Your child’s full name and birthdate.A clear statement of request, such as “I am requesting a full and individual evaluation for my son/daughter, [name and DOB].”A statement that “all areas of suspected disability” should be evaluated.A complete description of your concerns, which can include details about homework struggles, meltdowns, grades, failed or incomplete assignments and any other mitigating factors.Attached letters from doctors, therapists or any other providers who have relevant information, insights or diagnoses.Your complete contact information and a statement that you will provide consent for the evaluation upon notification.
  1. Ask for the decision in writing. The school is required by law to provide you with “prior written notice.” This means that you must receive, in writing, an explanation of the school’s decision. If you don’t understand why the school doesn’t think your child has a qualifying disability, ask for more details. School evaluators cannot refuse to evaluate your child because of budgetary constraints. They also cannot refuse because they want to try different instructional methods. School staff might use the term Response to Intervention (RTI). Although it might be useful for the school to research its teaching methods, this cannot be the basis for refusing to evaluate your child for a suspected disability.
  2. Request a meeting. Discussing your child’s difficulties in a face-to-face meeting can help school staff understand your level of concern. You may want to invite a district representative, such as a director of special education, who might help create more understanding about the school’s options. You can also invite a friend or an advocate to help you take notes and track the conversation.
  3. Request an Independent Educational Evaluation (IEE).  If the school district refuses to evaluate a student, parents or guardians can request an IEE, which can offer additional information that supports the need for specially designed instruction and services. You should make this formal request in writing. Please refer to the bulleted suggestions earlier in this article for details about composing your request. The district must respond to the IEE request, in writing, within 15 calendar days. The school will provide a list of independent evaluators. You can call each one, if you wish, before choosing who will evaluate your child. The school must consider the results of the IEE when deciding whether your child qualifies for special education programming.
  4. Contact a parent center!  There are nearly 100 Parent Training and Information Centers (PTI) and Community Parent Resource Centers (CPRC) in the United States and its territories.  In Washington, PAVE is the PTI and Open Doors is our CPRC serving multicultural families with loved ones with an intellectual/developmental (I/DD) in King County.  PAVE’s PTI is statewide – no matter the disability or the county or the issue, we’re here to help!  The Parent Resource Coordinators of PAVE’s PTI can help you with free information and guidance as you navigate the special education process. For example, the PAVE Resource Coordinators can help you review or compare evaluations and prepare for meetings. We also have templates for letters, including one for requesting evaluation.To request help from a Parent Resource Coordinator,  in English or Spanish online form or Call: 800-572-7368, ext. 115
  5. Consider whether to file a Citizen’s Complaint. If you believe that the school district has violated the laws that govern special education, you can file a formal complaint with the Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI).
  6. Consider Mediation.  A neutral, third-party mediator can help families and schools resolve differences, at no cost to the family. The process is voluntary and generally requires a one-day commitment for conversation and problem-solving. For more information about mediation, you can look up “mediation” on the OSPIwebsite or you can check out a firm called Sound Options for outside services for Mediation.
  7. Consider Due Process.  Any time you feel out of options and suspect that the school district might be violating the law, you have the right to file a formal grievance. You may want to hire an attorney to assist you with a Due Process request. You have the right to present and question witnesses and to submit or challenge documents regarding the issue. Your request must be filed within two years of the alleged violations. The OSPI website listed below has more information about Due Process.

For more information about evaluations, IDEA laws or actions available to you, please contact PAVE or visit the following websites:

Parent Center Hub – Categories of Disability under IDEA

OSPI Special Education Information

Sound Options Group

 

Assistive Technology

Assistive technology (AT) can dramatically affect the success of your special needs family member.

AT can give students equal access to curriculum, the work environment, or any other environment that use government funding.  Assistive Technology includes devices that are used by individuals in order to perform functions that might otherwise be difficult or impossible.

The AT can compensate for the impairments of the disability, increase classroom participation, foster independence, improve learning and working, assist in communication, and help the individual become successful in multiple aspect of life. In the school environment, assistive technology accomplishes these goals by allowing students with many types of disabilities to see, hear, read, write, and communicate.  In fact, assistive technology often provides the student with the only access to the general curriculum.

People who use AT products and services may have difficulty speaking, typing, writing, remembering, pointing, seeing, hearing, learning, walking, breathing, etc.  Everyone uses assistive technology.  We may not think that the things we use on a daily basis to make our life a little bit easier, like alarm clocks, planners, computers, talk to text software, canes, automatic windows and doors, lined paper, stools or chairs, the list could go on and on.  An individual with special needs may rely on AT devices to perform tasks and be more independent, enriching their life.

AT devices are protected under the law. This means that if there is need for an individual, then the use of the devices cannot be denied.  The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act or IDEA is the federal special education law that addresses services for children with disabilities, set into law in 1975. IDEA requires that states provide a free appropriate public education for children with disabilities, including related services. This law requires schools to provide necessary assistive technology devices and services to help children with disabilities receive an appropriate education. To that end, every child with a disability must be considered for assistive technology.

Section 504 of the rehab act protects qualified individuals with a disability in the US from discrimination in any program or activity receiving FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE—for instance: government offices, banks, educational institutions, hospitals and clinics, etc. So, if money can be traced back to the federal government through grants, loans, tax breaks, and the like. then this law is applicable.

When selecting AT devices, evaluating the product or device is critical.  The goal is to help or improve function, access or ability, not hinder or impede it.  Following the steps below can help us narrow in on the selection process.

Consider: Look at what tools are available and how they may restrict or support skills by doing a skills assessment. With an assessment, we are looking at the easiest or simplest way to solve the problem without distracting others or causing more difficulty for the individual, teachers, or other students.

Consult: After the needs are figured out, ask other people about the AT devices they use. Don’t be afraid to seek out professionals for advice.  Check out websites, blogs, and forums for advice on different devices.  Ask for examples of how the device helps, the limitations one might encounter, and pros and cons of the device.

Conclude:  Once a decision has been made about what is appropriate and what will meet the needs, it then is necessary to purchase, make, or obtain the AT and begin using it.  When we make a decision on AT devices, we must keep in mind that the needs may change, a person’s ability may outgrow the device, or that we might need to reevaluate.

Building in some flexibility when selecting the device can save time and money in the future.  For instance, if a person struggles to turn pages of a book, then an e-reader would be more appropriate.  However, if the person is unable to use a mouse and keyboard as well, then selecting a device that is internet capable may be a better option.  Before you purchase the device, try it out.  Each state has a National Assistive Technology center. Often, families can try out devices or other AT items prior to purchasing.  Below are a few links:

History of Quality Indicators for Assistive Tehcnology

State Tech ACT Projects

Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center

National Center for Technology Innovation

Things to remember about Assistive Technology:

  • AT levels the playing field by providing access
  • Each person requires different types of AT
  • One size does not fit all
  • AT does not have to be expensive
  • AT can change based on the needs, development, and milestones reached by the individual
  • AT is protected by law

“Working Together with Military Families of Individuals with DisAbilities!”