Early Learning Transition: When Birth-3 Services End

The Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) ends when a child turns 3. A transition to a preschool plan with an Individualized Education Program (IEP) requires a new evaluation and is a team-led process:

Planning begins 6-9 months before the third birthday.

  • The Family Resource Coordinator (FRC) schedules a transition conference to design a written Transition Plan.
  • The transition includes an evaluation that is conducted by the local school district and usually begins 2-3 months before the child’s third birthday.
  • If the child is determined eligible, the child will transition from a family-centered program of early learning (IFSP) into a school-based program (IEP).
  • Parent participation is critical: You are an important member of the transition planning team!

To qualify for an IEP, the child must meet evaluation criteria under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Criteria for Birth-3 services (Part C of the IDEA) are slightly different than the criteria for Special Education programming available for ages 3-21 (Part B of the IDEA).

To qualify for an IEP: (1) The student is determined to have a qualifying disability.  (2) The disability adversely impacts education. (3) The evaluation indicates a need for specially designed instruction.

Differences in Eligibility

IDEA Part C
(Also called Early Intervention -IFSP)

IDEA Part B
(Also called Special Education – IEP)
25% or 1.5 SD (Standard Deviation) Below the mean in one area of development – OR- 2 SD (Standard Deviation ) below the mean in one or more areas of development – OR –
Diagnosed physical or medical condition that has a high probability of resulting in delay  1.5 SD below the mean in two or more areas of development

Qualifying Disability Categories for IEP:

  • Developmental Delay (ages 3-8)
  • Specific Learning Disability
  • Intellectual Disability
  • Autism
  • Hearing Impairment
  • Emotional Disturbance
  • Deaf-blindness
  • Multiple Disabilities
  • Orthopedic Impairment
  • Other Health Impairment
  • Deafness
  • Speech/Language Impairment
  • Traumatic Brain Injury

A child who doesn’t qualify for an IEP:

  • May qualify for a Section 504 plan, which provides accommodations under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 when:
    • The disability significantly limits one or more major life activities.
    • The student needs accommodations to access the general education curriculum.
  • May qualify for other services like Head Start, co-operative pre-school, paid pre-school or day care with early achievers, play-to-learn programs, and other early learning opportunities in a community setting.

Use this checklist to help track your family’s transition steps:

6-9 months before the child’s third birthday:

  • The Family Resource Coordinator (FRC) starts talking about transition.
  • The FRC transmits your child’s records to the school system, with your written consent. The most recent IFSP and evaluations/assessments are included.
  • If your child is potentially eligible for Part B services, a transition conference is scheduled.
  • Community resources are located.

Transition Conference:

  • Parent’s rights in special education are explained.
  • Options for early childhood special education and other appropriate services are discussed.
  • A transition time line is developed.
  • A transition plan is written into the IFSP.

Evaluation:

  • If you agree, you sign consent for evaluation.
  • Records from Early Intervention Services are received at the school.
  • Information from the family is considered.
  • Evaluation is completed, and the eligibility meeting is held within 35 school days so that an IEP can be developed before the child’s third birthday.

IEP Meeting:

  • The IEP meeting is scheduled with a formal written invitation with date, time and location.
  • Discussion and decision-making include the family, the FRC (with parent permission), and an early childhood special education staff member.
  • Eligibility for special education is decided.
  • If the child is eligible, the Draft IEP is brought to the team meeting and you will have the opportunity to agree or disagree.
  • You receive a copy of your rights and procedural safeguards.
  • If you agree, you sign consent for services to begin.

The IEP in action:

  • The child makes the transition from Early Intervention to Early Childhood Special Education or another pre-kindergarten arrangement, if chosen.
  • The IEP is in place by our child’s third birthday.
  • The team of professionals and parents continue working together to resolve any issues that arise.
  • All IEP team members communicate during this time of change.

What’s Next when Early Childhood Services End at Age 3?

A Brief Overview

  • Services for families with infants and very young children include family-focused, home-based support. Families are served with an Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP). An IFSP ends when the child turns 3.
  • A child who qualifies for an Individualized Education Program (IEP) receives those services at school. Not all children who qualified for an IFSP will quality for an IEP. An IEP is for children ages 3-21, or until high-school graduation.
  • Families may transition from getting in-home help for their child with special needs to participating as members of an IEP team. This can feel like a big change. The information in this article can empower parents.
  • Transition planning starts at least half a year before the child’s third birthday. Providers, teachers, school administrators and the family start thinking and collaborating early about what the child might need to do well.
  • Read on to learn what parents need to know when a young child with special needs makes the transition from Birth-3 services into preschool or another program.
  • A parent-support agency called Informing Families provides a 12-minute video to guide parents through the early-learning transition process. 

Full Article

When a child is born with a disability or the family realizes early that an impairment might impact a young child’s ability to learn and develop at a typical rate, the family can get help from the state. Early Support for Infants and Toddlers (ESIT) is managed by Washington’s Department of Children, Youth, and Families (DCYF).

Services for families with infants and very young children include family-focused, home-based support. When a child is ready to graduate from those early-learning services, the school district determines whether to conduct an educational evaluation to see whether the child qualifies for school-based services. If a child qualifies, the family and school district work together to generate an Individualized Education Program (IEP), which can begin at age 3 in preschool.

A child who qualifies for an IEP receives those services at school. Families transition from getting in-home help for their child with special needs to participating as members of the IEP team. The goals change, and parents help teachers and school staff talk about what the child needs to successfully access school and learning. This transition can be disorienting to some families. Read on for more detail.

Early Intervention can start from birth

Early intervention services are guaranteed by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), under “Part C” of the IDEA. The U.S. Department of Education manages a federal grant program under the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) that helps states manage early intervention programs to support infants and young children and their families.

Part C services are available for infants and young children who:

  1. Experience developmental delays, which are medically diagnosed to impact cognitive, physical, communication, social-emotional and/or adaptive skills
  2. Have a diagnosed physical or mental condition that has a high probability of resulting in a developmental delay

Washington’s ESIT program assigns agencies in each county to serve as a “lead agency” to coordinate early learning services and testing. The lead agency works with service providers and the family to review a child’s medical record, discuss any observations by caregivers, and conduct screenings to see what’s going on and whether the issues of concern meet criteria under Part C for early intervention. 

When a child is found eligible for services, a Family Resource Coordinator (FRC) manages the case. The FRC helps to develop an Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP). Each plan is unique and may involve individualized instruction, therapy services and supported access to community resources. The plan is designed around the needs of the child and family and is not based on a predetermined program model.

Family-based, early learning services end on the child’s third birthday. A new educational evaluation is required to see whether the student qualifies for an IEP under “Part B” of the IDEA.

Part B services are available for children ages 3-21 (or until high-school graduation) who:

  1. Have a qualifying disability in at least one of 14 federal qualifying categories
  2. Are significantly affected by that disability at school (“Significant Educational Impact” is determined with evidence and data)
  3. Require specialized instruction to overcome the barriers of that disabling condition

To qualify for an IEP under the IDEA, a student meets criteria in one of 14 disability categories

Autism

Deaf-blindness

Deafness

Emotional Disturbance

Hearing Impairment

Intellectual Disability

Multiple Disabilities

Orthopedic Impairment

Other Health Impairment

Specific Learning Disability

Speech / Language Impairment

Traumatic Brain Injury

Visual Impairment/Blindness

Developmental Delay (ages 0-8)

 

Note that the disability category of developmental delay can qualify a child for free, family-focused services to age 3 and school-based, IEP services through age 8.

Helpers get creative during “Part C-to-B Transition” planning

The FRC helps the family and school district get ready. Often this is referred to as “Part C-to-B Transition” planning, so it’s helpful when families understand that Parts C and B come from federal law, the IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act), designed to ensure that children with disabilities get the help they need to be successful at school and prepared for life.

For families who have received services through the state’s early-learning program (ESIT), Part C-to-B Transition planning starts at least half a year before the child’s third birthday. Providers, teachers, school administrators and the family start thinking and collaborating about what the child might need to do well. The work includes a “Transition Planning Conference,” which happens about 90 days before a child turns 3. The participants at this meeting write a plan for what services or community supports the child might receive. 

Each plan is unique and designed to respond to individual needs. A child’s plan might indicate need for a specific child-care setting or medical-based therapies. The plan might include a referral to a specific, state-funded special-education preschool program through Head Start or the Early Childhood Education and Assistance Program (ECEAP, pronounced “E-Cap”). A transition plan also can name local playgroups or parent-support networks to connect the family to community resources. If a child’s educational evaluation has determined that the child is eligible for an IEP, then information about that is included.

Not all children who qualified for early-learning support will qualify for an IEP. Children who are not eligible for IEP services might be eligible to receive accommodations and support through a Section 504 Plan.

Early learning isn’t the only pathway to an IEP evaluation

Children who didn’t receive early-learning interventions can also be evaluated to determine whether they qualify for school-based services that can start as young as age 3 and can continue through age 21, or until a student graduates from high school.

Anyone with concerns about a child can refer the child for an educational evaluation. These referrals usually come from parents, teachers, medical providers or early-learning specialists. When a concerned adult formally requests an evaluation from the school district (best-practice is to make the request in writing), then the district is bound by the IDEA to respond to that request within 25 school days. PAVE provides a comprehensive article about the evaluation process.

The school district has a responsibility under the Child Find mandate of the IDEA to seek out and evaluate children with known or suspected disabilities who may need services. 

When a school district agrees to evaluate, parents sign consent for the assessments to begin. The IDEA requires schools to complete an evaluation within 35 school days. For a child receiving early-learning services, the first IEP meeting is required on or before the child’s third birthday.

Families may invite whomever they want to an IEP meeting. For example, they can invite the Family Resource Coordinator (FRC), a family member, a friend or any other support person. 

If the school district does not conduct an educational evaluation, or if the evaluation indicates that the child doesn’t qualify for school-based, IEP services, parents have the right to disagree with the school’s decision. The family can request a written statement that describes the school district’s position, with any information or data that was used to justify the decision.

Parents have rights to disagree through a variety of dispute engagement options. PAVE provides comprehensive articles about evaluation, IEP process and Procedural Safeguards, Student and Parent Rights.

PAVE’s Parent Training and Information (PTI) center provides technical assistance and can help parents understand how to participate in their child’s learning. Got to: wapave.org/get-help or call (253) 565-2266, 1-800-5-PARENT ext.115

The Arc of Washington hosts local Parent-to-Parent (P2P) programs across the state. Families can request a “support parent match” to talk with another parent who has already navigated this process. Visit Arcwa.org for more information.

Additional Resources:
Informing Families – informingfamilies.org
Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI) – k12.wa.gov   
OSPI Early Childhood services –  k12.wa.us/Specialeducation/earlychildhood
Early Intervention Resources in English and Spanish – ParentCenterHub.org
Washington State Department of Children, Youth, and Families – dcyf.wa.gov

If you are concerned about a child’s development:

Explore Adaptive Play with Your Child

Adaptive Play provides fun and engaging ways for children to learn new skills from occupational or physical therapists. Teachers in developmental preschools and kindergartens also make Adaptive Play part of their days. You can too!

Simply put, Adaptive Play is games and toys that work for children with unique physical or mental capacities. Special ways to play pretend, build with blocks, make up games or explore sensory experiences can engage and support children with developmental delays, physical challenges, sight or hearing challenges, or significant emotional/behavioral challenges. In hospitals, children in recovery might be able to “step outside” that bed or room for a while to have some playful fun.

Don’t let the fancy name intimidate you: Adaptive Play doesn’t have to be complicated or expensive. This article provides a few ideas and website links to help you get started. As the person who knows your child best, you may find that you are already creating Adaptive Play opportunities for your child!

By trying the ideas at home, you may also learn some tools and tricks that can be useful at daycare or school. For example, you may find out that certain sensory toys are great distractors, that playdough uplifts a mood or that a tub of play sand stimulates thinking and helps a child become centered. 

Adaptive Playtime might include:

  • Modified toys, such as Duplo’s instead of Legos
  • BIG crayons, pencils, paper…
  • Water playtime with bubbles
  • A tub of sand, kidney beans, flax seeds with a variety of scoopers or measuring cups

Digging into a sensory tub full of something to scoop and pour can help if your child struggles with large and small muscle or motor movement. Picking things up, holding things steady, touching and smelling the objects also helps with sensory development.  

Homemade playdough is another great way to turn “work” into play. Playdough develops muscle movement, touch, sight and smell and inspires the imagination. The Imagination Tree has a recipe for a non-toxic playdough. Your child can help you make it and can choose the colors and the smells!

A Speech-Language Pathologist who specializes in assistive technologies, Lynn Shugars, has published a list of Adaptive Play and Leisure activities online.  Here are her “rules:”

  • It should be FUN! Don’t turn it into work or it won’t be enjoyable.
  • It should be MOTIVATING to the student. (This is often different from what teachers and parents think the student might enjoy).
  • Expose a student to many toys and activities to determine what they like.
  • Change activities often, but repeating activities is beneficial and highly recommended. This fosters memory skills and allows students to anticipate activities.
  • Choose manipulative toys and activities.

There are many websites, Facebook groups and Pinterest pages dedicated to creating great play and learning spaces for children with challenges. Pathyways.org, offers articles and videos about the importance of playtime. Another resource is a website called Growing Hands-on Kids.

Don’t limit yourself to what you read online! Creating toys and activities from everyday items allows children to see those everyday things as fun and usable and stimulates imagination in play. Getting creative with your child will create a model for how to work with objects in the world to keep things interesting and inventive. Engaging your child in the process of creating adaptive toys and activities might even make it easier to take a trip—you’ll find that all kinds of things that are readily available and inexpensive can become the perfect toy!

Go play, and have fun with your awesome kids!

Benefits of Providing Early Intervention in the Natural Environment

Importance of a Natural Environment

As the Program Director of the Early Intervention Program at HopeSparks Family Services in Tacoma, I am frequently asked why we spend time and money providing services in a child’s home, rather than having families bring children to a clinic setting.  One reason is that it is the law, but more importantly, providing services at home or community settings where the child lives, learns, and plays, strengthens the capacity of the family in supporting their child’s development.  By incorporating therapeutic and educational activities into the family’s daily routine (mealtime, bath time, play, story time), we are able to support that child and parent in the moment, to reflect on what is working and what is not working within the family’s social and cultural network.  Parents often describe this experience as empowering, providing them the knowledge that they can carry out strategies when the therapists and educators are not available.

As a Speech-Language Pathologist, I have worked in clinical, medical, classroom, and home settings.  When working with children birth to three-years-old, no matter the setting, I invite families to sit on the floor with their child and teach through play.  When we are in the child’s home, I can use materials available to that child and parent all the time.  I am aware of challenges that may exist and I am able to work through those challenges with the parent in the comfort of their home and community. During a recent session with a 2-year-old, I was privileged to work with the child’s mother, maternal grandmother, and paternal grandmother and show all three of them strategies for eliciting language.  During the following session, the maternal grandmother commented on how she was able to follow the steps and get the same response from her grandson and she couldn’t believe how easy it was.

Traveling to homes, parks, and other community settings is not easy, but it is well worth it when we see families succeed in supporting their children and saying, “I can do this”, every day.  I feel honored to be invited into the homes and communities of the families we serve and, after experiencing the enormous benefits, I would not want it to be any other way.

Rachael Gray, M.S., CCC-SLP
Program Director
Early Intervention Program
HopeSparks Family Services
P 253-565-4887;  F 253-565-2983
www.HopeSparks.org